The magazine of the UW School of Public Health

Resources on Public Health Today: New Strategies. New Tools.

by Laura Larsson, MLS

From the Dean

Patricia Wahl

Public Health Systems Research
Health outcomes/outcomes research
Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) (similar to EH assessments but are voluntary)

Public Health Systems Research. Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, 2004-2009. [Site visited: October 28, 2009]
PHSR "investigates the large internal "systems" governing the operation of public health and the results on population health. These systems include the organization, the structure, the financing, the way services are delivered, the physical locations, the means of communication, the requirements of personnel, and the list continues. PHSR is an evidence-based analysis of these, and other, over-arching elements supporting the functions of public health agencies." This is a descriptive page only.

Public Health Systems Research Interest Group. AcademyHealth, 2008. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Public Health Systems Research is the emerging discipline that examines the organization, financing, and delivery of public health services and the impact of these activities on population health. Site provides information on the research interest group and its purpose.

Public Health Systems and Services Research. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The site answers the question, "What works in public health?" It begins to explore the major issues that public health is facing (H1N1 flu; strategies to rapidly expand public health services in the event of large-scale disasters or emergencies; variations in public health infrastructure, resources and services and the lack of an evidence base that "has been developed to determine which public health practices and organizations are the most effective."

Health Impact Assessment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Health impact assessment (HIA) is "commonly defined as "a combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population" (1999 Gothenburg consensus statement, HIA can be used to evaluate objectively the potential health effects of a project or policy before it is built or implemented." This page includes an annotated list of resources on Health impact assessment . The list includes links to valuable articles, groups and centers doing this research and tools such as the Healthy Development Measurement Tool.

From the Editor

Susan Allan

"the new public health"
major change in the culture of public health
importance of partnerships
social networking tools

Google Search of the News on the Topic of "New Public Health." Google. 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Locates in one spot the news from various sources on the topic of the "new public health."

Awofeso N. What's new about the "new public health"? Am J Public Health. 2004 May;94(5):705-9. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009].
This article addresses the question [of what is new about the "new public health"] by highlighting what is new about the health promotion era--including adapted components of previous eras that have been incorporated into its core activities-and its suitability in addressing established and emerging public health threats. (Author abstract).

Take the Path to New Opportunities. Take charge. Take care. Take credit. Take responsibility.

Patrick Libbey

new public health
what is public health?
Changing/changes in public health
Leadership in public health
Marketing public health

Viewpoint: The value of public health from a philanthropic perspective

Thomas Aschenbrener

Keywords/concepts/important topics
philanthropic organizations
Northwest Health Foundation

Northwest Health Foundation. [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009].
The mission of the Northwest Health Foundation is "to advance, support and promote the health of the people of Oregon and southwest Washington." Look for the Foundation's focus areas and grants, resources, handbooks and reports, calendar and events and news and commentary on the site. The Foundation "serves the communities of Oregon and Southwest Washington through grantmaking and health advocacy".

Philanthropic Foundations and the Globalization of Scientific Medicine and Public Health, by Benjamin Page, David Valone, David A. Valone (Editor). Barnes and Noble, July 2007.  [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009].
The authors in this volume "examine and critique the role of foundations, most prominently the Rockefeller Foundation, in promoting and expanding the development of Western medicine around the world during the twentieth century. The first half of the book examines the historical involvement of philanthropic foundations in public heath, basic medical research, and related social and political issues."

Google Search on the Topic of "public health philanthropy foundations." Google. 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009].
Resources on public health, philanthropy, and foundations.

Viewpoint: Putting the Public's Health into the Health Care Reform Debate

Representative Tina Kotek

Primary prevention
Improving people's health
(Substantive) public health policy changes
Community-based prevention strategies
Strategic coalitions
Health care reform

Fornili, Katherine. Population-Based Prevention Strategies and Health Care Reform: We Get What We Pay For, and We're Not Getting Enough Prevention. Journal of Addictions Nursing 2009, Vol. 20, No. 3, Pages 161-164.
"Heavy investment in the "personal health care system" is a limited future strategy for promoting health (IOM, 2003). This column addresses how a population-based public health approach to alcohol and drug use is an important component of comprehensive reform of our health and public health systems." (Author Abstract).

Creating a Culture of Wellness: Building Health Care Reform on Prevention and Public Health. ASPH Policy Brief, July 14, 2009.
Describes the seven key strategies for providing affordable, high-quality health care to all Americans, and for legislation that will achieve health insurance coverage for all Americans, both children and adults. Contains the Executive Summary and the full text of the document. The document contains a high quality set of references on the topic.

Ensuring U.S. Health Reform includes prevention and treatment of Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders--A Framework for Discussion. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), May 26, 2009.
The document was authored by Gail P. Hutchings. The document describes the nine core principles: Articulate a National Health and Wellness Plan for All Americans; Legislate Universal Coverage of Health Insurance with Full Parity; Achieve Improved Health and Long-Term Fiscal Sustainability; Eradicate Fragmentation by Requiring Coordination and Integration of Care for Physical, Mental, and Substance Use Conditions; Provide for a Full Range of Prevention, Early Intervention, Treatment, and Recovery Services that Embodies a Whole-Health Approach; Implement National Standards for Clinical and Quality Outcomes Tied to Reimbursement and Accountability; Adopt and Fully Utilize Health Information Technology (HIT); Invest in the Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery Support Workforce; and Ensure a Safety Net for People with the Most Serious and Disabling Mental and Substance Use Disorders and provides supporting evidence of their importance.

Kaiser Permanente Principles on Health Care Reform. Kaiser Permanente, [no date].
"In order to make universal access sustainable, the focus of reform needs to go beyond increased access and financing to reform how care is delivered and paid for. In addition, health reform should address the social, cultural and physical environments that influence health by promoting public health programs, community health services, and workplace efforts to support healthier lifestyles." The last two pages deal exclusively with community and public health principles. The report says, "Reform efforts must also achieve a seamless integration of the efforts of public health, community health and health care systems, and a way of developing a common set of population health and safety goals."

At a Glance: Public Health Agencies Adjust to Budget Cuts

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials

Budget cuts public health
Reducing programs
Responses to budget cuts

Impact Of Budget Cuts On State Public Health. ASTHO, 2009.
Describes the problem of how many state health departments made cuts to the FY09 budget (76%), provides a statistic on the number of state health department for which the FY10 budget is smaller than FY09 (61%) and describes how states are responding to the cuts: "States are responding to budget cuts by eliminating programs, reducing services, reducing administrative costs, and cutting back staff via layoffs and attrition." It emphasizes how critical programs are being cut and that staff have been reduced. It offers an interesting table that describes which programs states are making cuts in. The use of color coding in this table emphasizes the relative importance of the program cuts.

Public Will Feel Health and Community Services Budget Cuts. Jan 07 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Budget cuts in environmental health, public health nurse services and community services programs among others have the potential to severely affect the health of San Juan County, WA. This article describes what the cuts will mean to the public, especially families.

An Update on State Budget Cuts. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, October 20, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The cuts "enacted in at least 41 states plus the District of Columbia are occurring in all major areas of state services, including health care (27 states), services to the elderly and disabled (24 states and the District of Columbia), K-12 education (25 states and the District of Columbia), higher education (34 states), and other areas. States are making these cuts because the recession has caused declining revenues from income taxes, sales taxes, and other revenue sources used to pay for these services. At the same time, the need for these services has not declined and has, in fact, risen as the number of families facing economic difficulties increases.
Cuts to state services not only harm vulnerable residents but also worsen the recession by reducing overall economic activity."

NACCHO Survey of Local Health Departments' Budget Cuts and Workforce Reductions. NACCHO, January 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This article describes the bad news that is wrought by cuts in local health department budgets. This report from early 2009 does not cover the RIFs that have occurred since the date of publication. As a result of a "survey, to which 1,079 LHDs distributed across 46 states responded, found that a majority of respondents are experiencing adverse impacts and expect those to continue. NACCHO "estimates a total loss of approximately 7,000 local public health workers nationwide and expects that number to increase in 2009."

New Tools for Public Health

Northwest Center for Public Health Practice
Laura Larsson
See separate bibliography

Viewpoint: Developing an Evidence Base

Susan Allan

Evidence-based public health
Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR)
Public Health Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs)
Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs)
Advanced Practice Centers (APCs)

Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR) Webliography. National Library of Medicine. March 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This list of resources organized in the following way is funded by National Library of Medicine. Sections include: Organization, Structure & Infrastructure, Finance, Workforce, and Technology, Data & Methods. This lengthy list is composed primarily of journal citations with links to the abstracts.

Public Health Systems & Services Research (PHSSR). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Site offers the viewer information on becoming a member, news and updates, information on their annual conference, resources (a reference library of over 500 sources for example) and to their discussion board. Public Health Systems & Services Research (PHSSR) is "a new national program funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) designed to build awareness of this new field focused on the organization, financing, delivery and impact of public health services."

Public Health Services and Systems Research (PHSSR). National Network of Public Health Institutes, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
A primary aim of PHSSR is "to provide evidence that informs real world decisions made by practitioners, organizations, policy-makers, funders, and communities at the local, state, and national levels to protect the public's health and promote healthy communities. As a result, PHSSR findings can inform critical decisions which improve preparedness, community and clinical prevention, and the management of chronic diseases to promote healthier places to live, work, learn and play." This site offers a call for proposals for this program.

Practice Based Research Network (PBRN). [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Examine the 2009 call for proposals on this site; get a definition of what a Practice Based Research Network (PBRN) is. This project will "test models for developing and operating PBRNs comprised of state and local public health agencies working in collaboration with public health researchers."  Some of the information is only available to the successful grantees.

Washington State Practice-Based Research Network. Public Health - Seattle & King County, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Describes what the practice-based research network is in Washington State. Seven newsletters plus links to grant opportunities and to general resources which include: PBRN Initial Research and Evaluation Concepts, PBRN Key Concepts, Developing Practice-Based Research Networks in Public Health, Results from the PBRN Technical Assistance Survey - Standardized Responses.

Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems. Letter Report. Institute of Medicine (IOM), January 22, 2008.  [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The letter report "defines a set of near-term research priorities for emergency preparedness and response in public health systems. These priorities will be used by the Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COPTER) to help develop a research agenda that will in turn be used to inform research funding opportunity announcements."

Public Health Systems Research in Emergency Preparedness: A Review of the Literature. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 150-156. E. Savoia, S. Massin-Short, A. Rodday, L. Aaron, M. Higdon, M. Stoto. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The purpose of this study "was to conduct a systematic literature review in order to identify and characterize the PHSR literature produced in the U.S. in the past 11 years in the field of public health emergency preparedness." (Author Abstract).

A National Agenda for Public Health Systems Research on Emergency Preparedness. Joie Acosta, Christopher Nelson, Ellen Burke Beckjord, Shoshana R. Shelton, Erin Murphy, Kristin J. Leuschner, Jeffrey Wasserman. August 18, 2009. (Full Report) (Summary) [Site Accessed: October 27, 2009]
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response "asked RAND to facilitate the development of a public health systems research agenda for emergency preparedness, identify short- and long-term research priorities, and provide a basis for coordinating funders and researchers inside and outside the federal government. In response, RAND convened a panel of 13 experts representing a diverse range of perspectives. The panelists identified 20 research priorities and illustrative research questions in areas related to planning, response, resources and infrastructure, and accountability and improvement."

Advanced Practice Centers. NACCHO, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 27, 2009]
The National Association of County and City Health Officials' Advanced Practice Centers (APC) Program is "a network of local health departments that exist to serve the public health community, developing resources and training on topics such as: Biosurveillance; Vulnerable populations; Risk communication; Countermeasure distribution; and Workforce development." Look for program specific information and "In the Spotlight" which highlights important events.

The Seattle-King County Advanced Practice Center (APC). Public Health - Seattle & King County, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 27, 2009]
The Seattle-King County Advanced Practice Center (APC) is "a resource for local public health agencies throughout the nation as it develops plans and builds local and regional capacity for responding to an act of bioterrorism or other public health emergency." Look at sections titled, "What the Seattle-King County APC can do for you," and "Learn about the other seven Advanced Practice Centers."

Non-Washington State Advanced Practice Centers: [Sites Accessed: October 27, 2009]

Health Impact Assessment: Promoting Health Across Sectors

Andrew Dannenberg

Health Impact Assessment

Health Impact Assessment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Health impact assessment (HIA) is "commonly defined as "a combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population" (1999 Gothenburg consensus statement, HIA can be used to evaluate objectively the potential health effects of a project or policy before it is built or implemented." This page includes an annotated list of resources on Health impact assessment . The list includes links to valuable articles, groups and centers doing this research and tools such as the Healthy Development Measurement Tool.

Health Impact Assessment. World Health Organization, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
HIA "provides decision-makers with information about how any policy, programme or project may affect the health of people. HIA seeks to influence decision-makers to improve the proposal." Learn what HIA is, about the tools and methods to do HIA, find examples, learn how HIA contributes to policy making, and evidence used in HIA. WHO has also provided links to other Web sites and to its work in HIA. Look for new and events and to other, similar methods.

Health Impact Assessment Blog. [updated frequently]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Provides "the latest news and information on Health Impact Assessment (HIA)." It does have some interesting blog items such as, "The positive health and wellbeing impacts of Somali pirates!" (with video) and "US Health Impact Project launches, with opportunities for funding."

International Association for Impact Assessment Health Quarterly: Strange Days Indeed. Health Impact Assessment Blog, October 2, 2009.
[Site Accessed: October 28, 2009].
This issue covers "The Economic Crisis and Public Health" and "Responses to the H1N1 Pandemic" among other topics.

Health Impact Assessment: Concepts, Theory, Techniques, and Applications. Edited by John Kemm, Jayne Parry and Stephen Palmer, Oxford University Press, May 2004.
This book "gives a comprehensive overview of the concepts, theory, techniques and applications of Health Impact Assessment to aid all those preparing projects or carrying out assessments. It draws on examples and thinking from many different disciplines and many parts of the world."

Mittelmark, Maurice B. Promoting Social Responsibility for Health: Health Impact Assessment and Healthy Public Policy at the Community Level. Health Promotion International, Vol. 16, No. 3, 269-274, September 2001.
This paper, "which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health." (Author Abstract).

Health Impact Assessment Resources for Practitioners in the United States. Grantmakers in Health Audio Conference, February 25, 2009.
This online document offers links to International Websites, U.S. Government Websites, University HIA Education, Research and Practice Programs, Private North American HIA Practitioners and HIA texts and reviews among others. The resource list was prepared for the Grantmakers in Health Audio Conference, February 25th, 2009.

Health Impact Assessment: Spokane

Kat Hall, Elizabeth Wallace, and Heleen Dewey

Health Impact Assessment

City of Spokane Downtown Plan Update Rapid Health Impact Assessment Results. Spokane City Council Fact Sheet. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
A rapid HIA "was conducted that looks at policy statements supporting multimodal transportation, specifically bike and pedestrian connections, which are found in Chapter 5 of the 2008 Spokane Downtown Plan Update. This was a collaborative effort between The City of Spokane Planning Department, Spokane Regional Health District and The Lands Council." The article also appears as: Dannenberg, A. L., Bhatia, R., Cole, B. L., Heaton, S. K., Feldman, J. D., & Rutt, C. D. (2008). Use of health impact assessment in the U.S: 27 case studies, 1999-2007. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008; 34(3):241-256.

Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Public Health - Seattle & King County, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The purpose of the HIA is to "inform, influence, and support decision-making." A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) "involves a combination of procedures, methods and tools used to evaluate a policy, program or project as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and how these effects will affect different members of a population. HIA can help identify and consider the potential--or actual--health and equity impacts of a proposal on a given population." Of interest are the major sections with links to other HIA resources, examples and to a list serv. Viewers might find the report titled, "SR 520 Health Impact Assessment" which is available in PDF of interest.

Bhatia R, Wernham A. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008; 116(8): 991-1000. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
We recommend "greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice." [Author Abstract]

Health impact assessment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), [no date].
See above for annotation.

Cole BL, Fielding JE. Health impact assessment: a tool to help policymakers understand health beyond health care. Annu Rev Public Health 2007; 28:393–412. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
"Abstract Health impact assessment (HIA)—a combination of methods to examine formally the potential health effects of a proposed policy, program, or project—has received considerable interest over the past decade internationally as a practical mechanism for collaborating with other sectors to address the environmental determinants of health and to achieve more effectively the goals of population health promotion. ... This review outlines the common principles and methodologies of HIA and compares different approaches to HIA. Lessons learned from the related field of environmental impact assessment and from experience with HIA in other countries are examined." (Author Abstract).

Cole B, Wilhelm M, Long P, Fielding J, Kominski G. 2004. Prospects for health impact assessment in the United States:  new and improved environmental impact assessment or something different?  Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 29 (6) 1153-1186. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This article "examines lessons for HIA in the United States from the related and relatively well-developed field of environmental impact assessment (EIA)." … We conclude "that for HIA to advance, whether as part of or separate from EIA, well-formulated methodologies need to be developed and tested in real-world situations. When possible, HIA should build on the methods that have been utilized successfully in EIA. The most fruitful avenue is demonstration projects that test, refine, and demonstrate different methods and models to maximize their utility and acceptance." (Author Abstract). PMID: 15688580.

Collins J, Koplan JP. Health impact assessment: A step toward health in all policies.  JAMA 2009; 302(3):315-317.
Erratum in: JAMA. 2009 Sep 2;302(9):946.

Dannenberg AL, Bhatia R, Cole BL, Heaton SK, Feldman JD, Rutt CD. Use of health impact assessment in the United States: 27 case studies, 1999-2007. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34(3):241-256. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This PDF document contains the full-text article. "Using multiple search strategies, 27 HIAs were identified that were completed in the U.S. during 1999 –2007. Key characteristics of each HIA were abstracted from published and unpublished sources. … These completed HIAs are useful for helping conduct future HIAs and for training public health officials and others about HIAs." (Author Abstract).

Healthy Community Design Initiative Website. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
View a video by Dr. Howard Frumkin, Director of NCEH/ATSDR titled, "What is Healthy Community Design?" In addition to the video the section titled, "Health Issues as Related to Community Design" looks very useful. It highlights these topics:

HIA Gateway. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, National Health Service, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The Health Impact Assessment Gateway "provides access to HIA related information resources. sources of evidence and networks to assist people participating in the HIA approach." Recent additions to the list of resources are prominently placed in the center of the home page; they come with brief annotations. Training resources and events, guides, conferences and events, and news provide additional information to those interested in the topic of Health Impact Assessment.

Draft EIS, Beaufort and Chukchi Sea Multiple Lease Sales. Minerals Management Service: Anchorage, Alaska, 2008.
See subsections on environmental justice and Appendix J on public health.

National Academy of Sciences. 2003. Cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas activities on Alaska's North Slope. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The report "identifies accumulated environmental, social and economic effects of oil and gas leasing, exploration, and production on Alaska's North Slope. Economic benefits to the region have been accompanied by effects of the roads, infrastructure and activities of oil ... "

Steinemann A. 2000. Rethinking Human Health Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 20: 627-645. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This article "investigates these problems and provides recommendations to improve human health impact assessment, using strategic environmental assessment, qualitative health data, health outcomes in addition to cancer, and a precautionary approach to risk." (Author Abstract).

Wernham, A. (2007). Inupiat health and proposed Alaskan oil development: results of the first integrated Health Impact Assessment/Environmental Impact Statement for oil development on Alaska's North Slope. Ecohealth. 4: 500-517. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The author "conducted an HIA for proposed oil development within the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska in response to growing concerns among North Slope Inupiat communities regarding the potential impacts of regional industrial expansion on their health and culture. We employed a qualitative HIA methodology, involving a combination of stakeholder input, literature review, and qualitative analysis, through which we identified potential health effects."

Wernham, A., Brubaker M, Verbrugge L, Grant J, Heaton S, Rutt C. (2008). Public Health subsections, In U.S. EPA (2008) Red Dog Mine/Aqqaluk Extension Supplemental EIS. Anchorage, Alaska. Seattle, WA. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This website provides access to the draft and final SEIS and supporting documents. Appendix E - Methods Used for Health Effects Analysis is relevant to Health Impact Assessment.

Health Impact Assessment (HIA). World Health Organization (WHO), 2009.
See above for annotation.

Younger M, Morrow-Almeida HR, Vindigni SM, Dannenberg AL. The built environment, climate change, and health: opportunities for co-benefits. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Nov;35(5):517-26. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Vulnerable populations "are disproportionately affected with regard to transportation, buildings, and land use, and are most at risk for experiencing the effects of climate change. Working across sectors to incorporate a health promotion approach in the design and development of built environment components may mitigate climate change, promote adaptation, and improve public health." (Author Abstract). PMID: 18929978.

Health Impact Assessment: SR 520

Barbara Wright

Health Impact Assessment
King County
SR 520

Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Public Health - Seattle & King County, March 9, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
A large portion of this page is relevant to the HIA of SR 520.

SR 520 Health Impact Assessment A Bridge to a Healthier Community. Public Health - Seattle & King County and Puget Sound Clean Air Agency, September 2008.  [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
State Route 520 (SR 520) "was constructed in 1963 with little attention to the health problems associated with car emissions, neighborhood disruption, and degradation of the natural environment. … This report presents the findings of the health impact assessment report and recommendations that can be incorporated into the mediation process and impact plan."

Health Impact Assessment: Oregon

Mel Rader, Yvonne Michael, and Leslie Purdue

Creating a Transportation Policy for a Healthier Oregon. Upstream Public Health, 2006. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Upstream Public Health "commissioned a study to look at how a key provision of Governor Kulongoski's transportation policy proposal impacts health. The governor proposed that all metropolitan regions in Oregon set specific targets for reducing the total number of miles driven in order to meet legislature-approved greenhouse gas emissions standards." The important link is the link to the full report (available in PDF).

Columbia River Crossing Health Impact Assessment. June 2008.  [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This is an executive summary of the full document. The CRC project proposes four alternatives to the present I-5 bridge that spans the Columbia River and connects southwest Washington to Portland, Oregon.

Health Impact Assessment, Key Recommendations of the Northeast Area Plan. [no date].  [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) evaluates the six key recommendations of the City of Columbus Northeast Area Plan with respect to physical activity in everyday life for the residents of the Northeast area. The purpose of the HIA is to evaluate the health impacts of a project and make recommendations to increase positive health impacts and mitigate negative health impacts.

Health Impact Assessment on Policies Reducing Vehicle Miles Traveled in Oregon Metropolitan Areas. Upstream Public Health, May 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
A comment in a press release noted, "A Health Impact Assessment on How Investments in Public Transportation and Community Design Will Help Us Be More Active, Breathe Easier—and Improve Our Overall Health." This gives us the overarching theme of this document. This is the first-ever statewide HIA in Oregon. It offers critical analysis that decision-makers can use to implement healthier urban land-use and transportation policies at the local level. This was a collaboration between Upstream Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Human Impact Partners, and an expert advisory committee. It describes the methods and results of the study, looks at vulnerable populations, draws conclusions and offers recommended policies for health as well as a list of references.

MacArthur, John. Integrating Health into Transportation: The Time has Come! Why the Wait? Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium (OTREC), September 29, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This is a series of PowerPoint slides. One of the more interesting slides is titled, "Connecting the Determinants of Health to Transportation Planning." The slide lists 14 determinants of health including transportation and lists 13 health outcomes as related to transportation planning. It describes the potential benefits of Health Impact Assessment, describes how to integrate health into planning, and describes what OTREC is doing.

Building a Statewide Health Impact Assessment Program: A Case Study from Alaska

Aaron Wernham

Health Impact Assessment

Collins J and Koplan J P. Health Impact Assessment: A Step Toward Health in All Policies. JAMA. 2009;302(3):315-317. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
By evaluating alternative proposals and their relative risks and benefits, an EIS helps decision makers choose options that promote favorable outcomes and mitigate adverse environmental consequences. … A natural extension of this work is the use of health impact assessment (HIA) to examine the effects that a policy, program, or project may have on the health of a population. (Author's text from article; no abstract).

Saving $2.4 Million: The Idaho Tobacco Program

Lee Hannah, Katherine Quinn, and Kallie Penchansky

Idaho Tobacco Prevention and Control Program. Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, 2007. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The Idaho Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, called Project Filter, "works to educate the public about the resources available to help individuals quit using tobacco. By working with the 7 health districts, numerous health and educational associations and institutions, healthcare professionals around the state and impassioned individuals, Project Filter multiplies and strengthens its efforts in a timely, effective and efficient manner."

Smoking and Tobacco Use. Case Study: Idaho. Centers for Disease Control and prevention, May 29, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Strategic Planning Process to Address Tobacco-Related Disparities in Idaho. The Idaho Tobacco Prevention and Control Program "with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with community members to create a strategic plan for identifying and eliminating tobacco-related disparities." This case study was written by Colleta Reid, an Office on Smoking and Health Consultant, December 2003.

American Cancer Society. Trends in Tobacco Use. Coverage for tobacco use cessation treatments. 2008. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Describes why insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatment programs are so important and which treatment programs are successful and effective.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses - United States, 2000-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 45, 2008;1226-1228. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This report "presents an update of that analysis for 2000--2004, the most recent years for which source data are available. The updated analysis indicated that, during 2000--2004, cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke resulted in at least 443,000 premature deaths, approximately 5.1 million YPLL, and $96.8 billion in productivity losses annually in the United States. Comprehensive, national tobacco-control recommendations have been provided to the public health community with the goal of reducing smoking so substantially that it is no longer a significant public health problem in the United States". (Author text; no abstract).

Sutherland, G. Current approaches to the management of smoking cessation. Drugs. 2002;62 Suppl 2:53-61. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Describes effective approaches to smoking cessation and describes the various national and international smoking cessation guidelines [that] "have been published recommending effective implementation of smoking cessation strategies." (Author Abstract).

All Hands On Deck: The Alaska Multi Agency Coordination Group

Michael Bradley

Disaster planning
Pandemic flu
Unified command team
Communication and coordination

Multi-Agency Coordination Group for Pandemic Flu. [no date]. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The threat of Pandemic Influenza has received considerable attention worldwide.  In response to this threat, the State of Alaska "established a Multi-Agency Coordination (MAC) Group co-chaired by the Departments of Military and Veterans Affairs (DMVA) and Health and Social Services (DHSS) to address pandemic influenza issues in Alaska. The MAC Group also established   a subordinate Incident Management Team (IMT) to address the operation side of preparing for and responding to an influenza pandemic." Site offers links to information about both types of flu, and news, publications and links.

Alaska Interagency Mobilization Guide 2009. 2009. [Site Accessed: October 29, 2009]
The Alaska Interagency Mobilization Guide (AIMG) identifies policy and agreements that establish the standard procedures that guide the operations of multi-agency/jurisdictional
logistical support activities.

Lok-It-Up: Partnering for Safety

Tony Gomez

Firearm safety
Safe storage lockboxes
Partnering with businesses

Lok-It-Up Campaign. University of Washington, 2005. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Many guns are stored unsafely. Locking up firearms can greatly reduce unwanted access and safe lives. The LOK-IT-UP campaign is a public awareness program encouraging the safe storage of firearms." The site is supported by several Washington Local Health Jurisdictions and provides brochures about safe gun storage. The site contains information for health care providers and parents, and offers answers to important questions regarding gun storage.

Parents' Guide to Firearm Safety. National Rifle Association, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The NRA offers information on the parents' responsibility, what to discuss with your child, offers guidance on toy guns vs. real guns, describes basic gun safety rules and gun owners' responsibilities.

Firearm Safety. University of Oregon, [no date] [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Discusses three areas: the fundamentals of firearm safety, additional specific rules of safe gun handling, and safe gun storage.

Safe Gun Storage. Family, 2000-2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This document concentrates on two areas: safe storage and gun locks.

Tomlinson, David A. Safe, and Legal Storage of Non-Restricted Firearms. September 26, 2006. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Describes the processes for making it possible to safely store firearms.

Safety Curriculum. Project ChildSafe: Putting A Lock On Safety In Your Home, [no date] [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This is a lengthy article that discusses handling and storing firearms in a safe manner.

Satisfaction Up, Numbers Down: Rural Public Health Nurses Needed

Sandra Cole, Karen Ouzts, and Mary Beth Stepans

Rural/rural communities
Public health nurses
Recruitment and retention
Job satisfaction factors

The Public Health Nursing Shortage: A Threat to the Public's Health. The Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, November 2006. ... D-h4w. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Full-text document from Google docs. Get the Executive Summary and Recommendations as well as the complete document. This document can be printed out or downloaded as a file from ASTDN. Many references, some with hyperlinks.

Rural Health Research Publications: Nurses. Rural Health, 2009.
Many of the annotated citations deal with nurse workforce issues in rural areas. A useful list of publications related to this topic.

Health Care Workforce Frequently Asked Questions. Rural Assistance Center, June 10, 2009. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Answers questions such as: Why is there a health care workforce shortage problem in rural areas? What strategies can communities and states take to help reduce and address the problems of workforce shortages in rural health care? Where can I find statistics on health care workforce in various states including employment, projected growth and key environmental factors? Also, is there data showing how workforce shortages vary between urban and rural areas? How can rural employers encourage worker retention and advancement? (Other questions are not listed here). Responses include links to useful sites that help answer the FAQ questions.

Obstacles & Opportunities: Future for Public Health Students

Janessa Graves

Challenges and opportunities
Public health
Disease surveillance
Future of public health

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Who will keep the public healthy?: educating public health professionals for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2002. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Describes the state of the art training that student need to survive in today's challenging world.

Levy BS. Creating the Future of Public Health: Values, Vision, and Leadership. Am
J Public Health. 1998; 88(2):188-192. 9491005. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
Levy describes the ten trends in public health and examines their dangers and opportunities. It also offers suggestions as to who we should be, and public health values and leadership. His concluding sentence is telling, "And let us not forget that it takes a society to practice public health, a society in which the public is in public health." The full text version of this document is available in PDF.

Stacia R. Hall. The Future of Public Health Education: Curriculum, Training and Funding. George Mason University School of Public Policy, December 2003. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
This paper describes the emergency preparedness competencies developed by
Columbia University that indicate a need for all public health workers to be competent in nine basic functions. It asks the question, "[S]hould graduate public health education be required for all public health workers and if so, who will bear the costs?" It looks at various curriculum issues including training and funding. It draws conclusions and asks further questions.

Public Health Pipeline: The Future Generation of Public Health Professionals. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October 9, 2005. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The Public Health Pipeline Program "supported efforts by two education organizations from 1998 to 2003 to build the capacity of educational systems to improve science education for students in grades six through nine." In October 1997 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation "authorized a $2-million, six-year program named Public Health Pipeline: The Future Generation of Public Health Professionals." The goal of the program "was to build the capacity of educational systems to improve science education for students in grades six through nine…"

[No authors listed]. Training tomorrow's public health leaders. Can J Public Health. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(4):245.

Declercq E, Caldwell K, Hobbs SH, Guyer B. The changing pattern of doctoral education in public health from 1985 to 2006 and the challenge of doctoral training for practice and leadership. Am J Public Health. 2008 Sep;98(9):1565-9. Epub 2008 Jul 16. [Site Accessed: October 28, 2009]
The authors "examined trends in doctoral education in public health and the challenges facing practice-oriented doctor of public health (DrPH) programs. We found a rapid rise in the numbers of doctoral programs and students. Most of the increase was in PhD students who in 2006 composed 73% of the total 5247 current public health doctoral students, compared with 53% in 1985. There has also been a substantial increase (40%) in students in DrPH programs since 2002." (Author Abstract). It also describes the challenges to practice-oriented education.