The magazine of the UW School of Public Health

Resources on Emerging Diseases and Infections

Annotated bibliography by Laura Larsson

Major American Sites

Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education. Addressing Infectious Disease Threats. Current Fact Sheets.
http://www.astdhpphe.org/infectintro.asp
Describes what infectious diseases are, explains why infectious diseases are both emerging and reemerging, provides prevention suggestions, and concludes by describing the critical role for health professionals in communicating disease risk. Hotlines and a table of infectious diseases, agents, and nodes of transmission are made available for health professional use.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases.
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
This valuable collection of links to resources in infectious disease from the CDC points readers to information about specific diseases and to the vectors that cause the disease. Both technical information such as clinical features, etiologic agent, reservoir, incidence, sequelae, transmission, risk groups, surveillance (if any), challenges and opportunities, and additional information such as references are given in the extensive list of infectious diseases. Specific links to important emerging diseases such as SARS and food-related diseases are highlighted on the site. From this page gain access to information for travelers and to infectious disease surveillance and to information of interest to students and teachers.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases Emerging Infectious Disease Resource Links
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/id_links.htm
This valuable collection of links to resources in emerging infectious disease from the CDC points readers to articles and lectures, journals, newsletters and other publications, to data, to programs and networks, and to agencies, organizations and associations, educational institutions and departmental Web sites.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/dmid/eid/
"The problem posed by emerging and re-emerging infections is one of unparalleled complexity. Many infectious diseases can be expected to increase in incidence or change in distribution under conditions in which currently available control measures prove insufficient; the periodic epidemics of influenza or cholera experienced in the last century provide familiar examples." This site provides fact sheets and brochures about antimicrobial resistance, news releases, staff presentations and papers, reports and articles, research plans and priorities and meetings. Useful links are also offered to the visitor to the site.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Disease Publications.
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/eid.htm
Lists fact sheets and brochures, as well as news releases on such topics as SARS, Dengue Fever, the genetic blueprint of disease-causing microbes, and related topics. From this page the reader can find links to various emerging infectious diseases.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Antimicrobial Resistance
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/dmid/antimicrob/default.htm
"The increasing use of antimicrobials in humans, animals, and agriculture has resulted in many pathogens developing resistance to these powerful drugs. All major groups of pathogens — viruses, fungi, parasites, and bacteria — can become resistant to antimicrobials." This site provides fact sheets and brochures about antimicrobial resistance, news releases, staff presentations and papers, reports and articles, research plans and priorities and meetings. Useful links are also offered to the visitor to the site.

StatePublicHealth.org
http://www.statepublichealth.org/
This site is supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, by the State Health Leadership Initiative at the National Governors Association, and by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Use the search engine to find more than 20,000 emerging disease documents from the states. Use either "emerging diseases" or "emerging infectious diseases" as your search terms. Limit your search to a more manageable number of records by selecting: all sites, state public health sites, federal public health sites, ASTHO and affiliated sites and other sites. The site can also be used to search other topics and to find data.

Institute of Medicine. Board on Global Health
http://www.iom.edu/about-iom/leadership-staff/boards/board-on-global-health.aspx
"The Board on Global Health (BGH) is concerned with advancing the health of populations worldwide. This involves addressing developing country health issues, enhancing the United States role in global health, and addressing health issues that have implications for U.S. health policy. The Board focuses on public health programs for prevention and control of disease and disability. This includes assessment of biomedical knowledge, research, and opportunities; reduction of behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental risks to public health; recognition and guidance on ethical issues in public health; and recognition of opportunities to apply scientific knowledge to public policy making." Recent publications, some of which are discussed in the books section, include: Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak. Workshop Summary, The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment- Workshop Summary and Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response.

New York Academy of Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases Discussion Group.
http://www.nyas.org/channels/index.asp?channelID=4
This site provides links to upcoming emerging infectious disease events and related events and reports sponsored by the Academy.

ProMED (Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases)
http://www.fas.org/promed/
Provides links to the ProMED-mail archives and to AHEAD/ILIAD (a site that provides surveillance information on animal and zoonotic diseases).

Saint Louis University School of Public Health. Center for the Study of Emerging Diseases.
http://www.emerginginfections.slu.edu/
In addition to providing a high quality list of emerging infections complete with fact sheets, educational material, key references including online articles and case studies, official remarks and reports, news and Internet resources, visitors can search for information via mode of transmission, organism, and syndrome. Use the available search engine when you need related information. Also helpful is the clear image of each organism on each disease mentioned.

Society for Medical Anthropology, Global Health and Emerging Disease Study Group (GHEDSG) (formerly the International Health and Infectious Disease Study Group)
http://www.medanthro.net/research/globalhealth/index.html
Describes the Study Group's activities and discussion lists and provides academic resources and other links of related interest.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Center for Emerging Issues Emerging Disease Notices
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cei/notices.htm
"Emerging Disease Notices examine occurrences of a new or emerging diseases. Areas covered in an Emerging Disease Notice include a brief review of what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, mode of transmission, reservoir species, and zoonotic potential. In addition, production and trade in livestock and livestock products likely to be affected by the disease are examined along with risk factors for disease spread within or to the U.S." Content is sporadic.

U.S. Department of Defense. Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System
http://www.geis.fhp.osd.mil/
The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) is "designed to strengthen the prevention of, surveillance of and response to infectious diseases that are a threat to military personnel and families, reduce medical readiness or present a risk to U.S. national security."The site is divided into several sections: News about the GEIS system, Infectious Disease News, and Infectious Disease Topics of Interest. Additionally, information about training, global networks, locations and programs are listed.

Commercial Web Sites

 

Medscape Resource Center - Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases

 

http://www.medscape.com/pages/editorial/resourcecenters/public/infections/rc-infections.ov

 

This commercial site "provides clinicians with the latest news, reference material, literature selections and continuing education about emerging and reemerging infectious diseases." Registration is free. It is designed to help healthcare professionals to understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases, to identify the signs and symptoms of such diseases, and to aptly consider potentially unusual etiologies in the differential diagnosis of patients." Of interest to health care providers because of its valuable and current information. The major section is titled, "Focus On" and guides clinicians to important emerging infectious diseases such as SARS and avian influenza. Get an overview of current EIDs, recent news, general information and the latest from the literature. Also valuable are the CME programs, some available as Webcasts and others through the Medscape Personal Professor, and "Conference Coverage" sections. While on the site readers can also sign up for newsletters on a variety of specialty areas such as "Infectious Diseases" and "Public Health & Prevention."

Selected Emerging Infectious Diseases

 

Hardin MD: Infectious Diseases / Bacterial Diseases / Microbiology

 

http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/micro.html

 

Hardin MD is a list of directory sites. The Infectious Diseases / Bacterial Diseases / Microbiology site points the reader to large, medium length and short lists of sites on specific emerging diseases. Of particular interest to readers are the large number of images included on the listed sites. Only the most important and constantly updated directory sites are listed.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases Emerging Infectious Disease Resource Links

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/id_links.htm

 

This set of links from NCID points the reader to articles and lectures, journals, newsletters and other publications, data, programs and networks, agencies, organizations and associations as well as educational institutions and departmental Web sites with an interest in emerging infectious diseases. Links are often to the site's home page. When the reader gets to the site, he or she should be prepared to use the site search engine, site map or browse the links on various navigation bars.

 

Avian Influenza (H5N1)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic Information About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

 

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/facts.htm

 

Describes what the flu is and how to protect yourself and others from getting the flu, or if you have it, from spreading the flu. The section for health professionals offers the following links: Vaccination, Clinical description and diagnosis, Background, Training, Infection control, Treatment, Patient education, References and resources, and Surveillance. Content is available in five additional languages including Spanish, Vietnamese, Chinese and Japanese.

 

World Health Organization. Avian Influenza

 

http://www.who.int/health_topics/avian_influenza/en/

 

Although not fully populated yet this page "provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, news and events, as well as contacts and cooperating partners in the various WHO programmes and offices working on this topic. Also shown are links to related web sites and topics."

 

Gastrointestinal Illnesses, see Norovirus

Hepatitis C

 

Hepatitis Information Network: HepNet - Hepatitis C

 

http://www.hepnet.com/hepc.html

 

This site gives information on news, events, and information for physicians and patients. The home page lists New Additions and provides links to Epidemiology, Natural History (of the disease), Management and Future Directions. Links to Hepatitis A, B, D, and E are also given.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Viral Hepatitis C.

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/index.htm

 

"Hepatitis C: is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is found in the blood of persons who have the disease. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person." In addition to a fact sheet about Hepatitis C and a good FAQ, visitors to the site can find recommendations and on-line training. The site is also available in Spanish. Information for the public and for clinicians and other health care providers is also made available. Register for online training using the Training link.

 

Lyme Disease

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. Lyme Disease

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/lyme/

 

Describes the history, presents the vector (tick causing the problem), the risk of getting the disease, provides answers to questions, describes the tick ecology and for the clinician gives the diagnosis. Prevention and control suggestions are made. Links to the scientific literature, to the epidemiology of the disease and to a PBS documentary give both professionals and the public information on Lyme disease.

 

Lyme Disease Network (LymeNet)

 

http://www.lymenet.org/

 

The Lyme Disease Network, is a non-profit foundation dedicated to public education of the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Support groups, an online library, legal resources, medical abstracts, a newsletter, books, pictures and additional information can be found on this site.

 

Norovirus

 

National Center for Infectious Diseases (CDC). Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Viral Gastroenteritis

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/faq.htm

 

Describes aspects of viral gastroenteritis, what it is, what causes it, its symptoms, contagion, and treatment.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Norovirus

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/norovirus.htm

 

"Noroviruses (genus Norovirus, family Caliciviridae) are a group of related, single-stranded RNA, nonenveloped viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus was recently approved as the official genus name for the group of viruses provisionally described as “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLV)." Find Norovirus Q&A, Norovirus Technical Fact Sheet, and information about Norovirus and foodhandlers. The Q&A link sends the reader to information on what a norovirus is, what the symptoms are, how serious the norovirus disease is, alternate names for the illness caused by the virus, infection process, contagious-ness of the virus, and treatment. For the health care practitioner, similar information is presented from the clinician standpoint. Appropriate information for food handlers is also available.

 

Tick Relapsing Fever (Ornithodoros turicata)

Schwan TG, Policastro PF, Miller Z, Thompson RL, Damrow T, Keirans JE. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever Caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Sept [date cited]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no9/03-0280.htm

 

This helpful article describes the history of tick-borne relapsing fever, the vector that causes it and the study that lead to the publication of this article.

 

Washington State Department of Health. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever

 

http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/ts/Zoo/TBRF.html

 

This state Health Department document describes "relapsing fever" and what it is, how it is spread, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Of particular interest to the public is the information on how to avoid getting relapsing fever, especially how to control rodents and ticks.

 

TB

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Topic: Tuberculosis
http://www.cdc.gov/tb/

 

CDC has prepared sections of interest to the public, to travelers, workers and to clinicians and epidemiologists in the following site links: Questions & Answers about TB, Travelers' Health Information on Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis in the workplace, Tuberculosis surveillance reports, and Tuberculosis vaccinations.

 

West Nile Virus

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. West Nile Virus

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm

 

Learn about ways to protect yourself, your family and your community from West Nile virus, view maps of West Nile Virus activity, and if you are a clinician, laboratorian or member of the press, look for links specifically for you. Publications and presentations from the 2003 WNV National Conference are also accessible from this page as are links and state and local government sites with information on West Nile Virus.

 

Washington State Department of Health. West Nile Virus in Washington

 

http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/ts/Zoo/WNV/WNV.html

 

The Department of Health Web site is very helpful with respect to this disease. Clinical information for health care providers, environmental health information for state and local agencies and other organizations, useful information for the public and maps, statistics, and news releases is also available. Information on mosquito repellants and on mosquitos is available in two brochures.

 

SARS

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/

 

The CDC has collected information for specific groups and settings such as the general public, clinicians, health departments, laboratorians, and the legal community. As well, it presents information on community containment (quarantine), clinical evaluation and diagnosis, exposure management, laboratory and infection control. Additional information such as updated guidance and news is offered as well as Hotlines for reporting cases of SARS.

 

CBC News Online SARS: Timeline

 

http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/sars/timeline.html

 

Describes the onset of SARS from its discovery February 15, 2003 and traces events in China and Canada to June 11, 2003.

 

Food Issues and Food Security

 

FoodNet : Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (CDC's Emerging Infections Program): a program of the Foodborne & Diarrheal Disease Branch

 

http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/

 

"FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, ten EIP sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, New York, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, Tennessee and New Mexico), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (http://www.usda.gov/), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (http://www.fda.gov/). The project consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States." It "provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases." Find information on the diseases and pathogens under surveillance, reports and studies, and conferences, related links and links to the FoodNet member site.

 

Iowa State University. College of Veterinary Medicine. Center for Food Security and Public Health

 

http://www.vetmed.iastate.edu/services/institutes/cfsph/

 

The mission of the CFSPH is "to increase national preparedness for accidental or intentional introduction of disease agents that threaten food production or public health." The Center is involved in three major activities: Awareness Education, The Public Health Auxiliary Support Team for Emergency Response (PHASTER), and providing MPH education. It is one of the CDC Specialty Centers in Public Health Preparedness. Find disease fact sheets and information on agroterrorism (via training sessions offered in 2003 and 2004). The fact sheets available in PDF format "include the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) List A diseases and List B diseases (that are either not present in the US or that are reportable diseases) as well as a number of reportable agents not currently on the OIE lists."

 

International Web Sites

 

AFRIMS: Global Emerging Infections System (GEIS)

 

http://www.afrims.org/geis.html

 

The mission of this site is to "support the Department of Defense's GEIS program by enhancing the infectious disease surveillance and response components of the international public health infrastructure in Asia." Visitors to the site can read about GEIS current Projects, about outbreak investigations, collaborators, GIS Disease Mapping, training activities and to links to related content.

 

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Regional Health Threats

 

http://www.apec.org/apec/apec_groups/som_committee_on_economic/working_groups/health/apec_information_on.html

 

This site describes emerging infectious health threats such as SARS and Avian Flu in the Asia-Pacific Rim region. It also looks at these public health problems from the economic standpoint, at the effects on the affected economies. APEC health ministers provide statements on emerging disease issues of importance to their countries. Helpful documents such as press releases, self-assessment questionnaires for officials, prevention and control documents and articles from epidemiological journals are also linked from the sidebar.

 

Emerging/Reemerging Diseases (PAHO)

 

http://www.paho.org/english/ad/dpc/cd/eid-eer.htm

 

This PAHO site provides access to EID Weekly Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas and to various emerging and/or reemerging diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Anthrax, Dengue, Malaria, Tuberculosis and West Nile Virus. In addition to these, readers will also find "Situation Reports," "Incidence/Mortality/Case Fatality" documents, "Guidelines and Manuals," "Resistance Surveillance," "Epidemiological Surveillance Systems (ESS)," and "Country Profiles."

 

Emerging, Re-emerging and Other Communicable Diseases - DDC - WHO/AFRO (African Region)

 

http://www.afro.who.int/emc/

 

The mission of this agency is "to provide technical support to the countries of the African region in order to contribute to the reduction of morbidity, disability and mortality due to epidemic diseases through the improvement of epidemic preparedness, detection and response." Of some interest are the outbreak control measures at the community level for Cholera, Meningitis, Plague, Dysentery, Hemorrhagic Fever, and Yellow Fever. Outbreak control measures cover such topics as Case finding and management, contact and family management, environmental sanitation, personal hygiene and health education.

 

Health & Borders: Comparing global to international & local visions of health and disease.

 

http://caribou.cc.trincoll.edu/~jtrostle/Health & Borders/main.html

 

The main point of this site is that "communicable diseases do not stop at borders." Some information on new and re-emerging diseases, on "classic" international diseases such as malaria, AIDS, cholera, diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections, on refugees and their health, global health organizations and a case study of cholera in Ecuador. The site is created and maintained by James Trostle, Mary Ellen Rodgers, and Christine Maltese.

 

World Health Organization. Emerging diseases.

 

http://www.who.int/health_topics/emerging_diseases/en/

 

This page "provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, news and events, as well as contacts and cooperating partners in the various WHO programmes and offices working on this topic. Also shown are links to related web sites and topics."

 

World Health Organization. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response

 

http://www.who.int/csr/en/

 

From this page you will learn "how the Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR) is working towards global health security – epidemic alert and response." Discover CSR's main areas of work and their activities at the global, regional and country level. Review a comprehensive listing of disease outbreaks, investigate other information resources and learn how CSR is organized. Highlights of the most recent disease outbreaks, CSR's latest activities, and useful links are listed on CSR's home page.

 

Note: In addition to international agencies that provide targeted emerging disease information and prevention strategies, readers interested in international emerging diseases should visit the national equivalents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sites such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the Malaysia Ministry of Health, or Health Canada for information on specific diseases such as SARS (note the language may not be English).

 

Prevention (Including Preparation for Deliberate Epidemics)

 

Addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the United States, 1994.

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/publications/eid_plan/default.htm

 

This plan, although published in 1994, was "developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with local and state public health officials, other federal agencies, medical and public health professional associations, infectious disease experts from academia and clinical practice, and international and public service organizations. The plan addresses the urgent need to improve the nation's ability to identify infectious disease threats and respond to them effectively. It will serve as a guide for CDC's work in collaboration with its partners in safeguarding the nation from the threat of emerging infectious diseases." The CDC's prevention strategy is outlined and great emphasis is put on the critical role of partnerships in addressing emerging infectious disease threats.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century.

 

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00054779.htm

 

"CDC scientists have designed a plan to respond to the emergence and resurgence of microbial threats in the new millennium — Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century

. This Web site contains the full version of CDC's plan and its supporting materials, which describe the steps that CDC and its public health partners must take to ensure that people are better protected from infectious diseases." Visitors to the site will find the strategic plan, booklets, cases, a slide set that can be used to discuss the plan, and can listen to audio. The strategic plan "targets specific categories of emerging infectious disease problems and particular groups of people who are at special risk. The nine target areas are antimicrobial resistance; foodborne and waterborne diseases; diseases transmitted through blood transfusions or blood products; chronic diseases caused by infectious agents; vaccine development and use; diseases of people with impaired host defenses; diseases of pregnant women and newborns; and diseases of travelers, immigrants, and refugees."

 

INSPEAR - International Network for the Study and Prevention of Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/surveill/inspear.HTM

 

INSPEAR is a "response to the global emergence of drug-resistant organisms and the resulting need for international surveillance programs and the strengthening of the microbiologic and epidemiologic capacities of hospitals worldwide. The main purposes of INSPEAR are 1) to serve as an early warning system for emerging antimicrobial resistance, 2) to rapidly distribute information about this resistance, and 3) to provide microbiologic and epidemiologic assistance to INSPEAR members." Of special interest to readers are the sections on outbreak management, antimicrobial resistance, bloodborne pathogens, guidelines and recommendations, surveillance and training."

 

The United States Army Medical Research Institute for infectious diseases - USAMRIID

 

http://www.usamriid.army.mil/index.htm

 

As the Department of Defense's lead laboratory for medical aspects of biological warfare defense, USAMRIID "conducts research to develop vaccines, drugs and diagnostics for laboratory and field use. In addition to developing medical countermeasures, USAMRIID formulates strategies, information, procedures, and training programs for medical defense against biological threats." Available information consists of USAMRIID programs, education, publications and related links.

 

World Health Organization. Preparedness for Deliberate Epidemics

 

http://www.who.int/csr/delibepidemics/en/

 

Site describes the available Information resources (http://www.who.int/entity/csr/delibepidemics/informationresources/en

) including publications, FAQs, program reports and links to other sites. Also on this page is information on national and international preparedness and global alert and response. Find preparedness information on specific diseases associated with biological weapons. This page lists the pathogens most likely to be used: anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox and tularemia.

 

World Health Organization. Strategies for Fighting Emerging/Reemerging Diseases: preparedness and response plans.

 

http://www.who.int/csr/delibepidemics/en/Preparednessproject.pdf

 

Defines WHO's response to deliberately caused epidemics. Gives some background, WHO's role and key partners.

 

World Health Organization. Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network

 

http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/

 

The subheading for this page is "containing outbreaks in the field." The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network is "a technical collaboration of existing institutions and networks who pool human and technical resources for the rapid identification, confirmation and response to outbreaks of international importance." Site describes the purpose of the site, WHO's partners, its guiding principles for international outbreak alert and response and its planned response to intentional use of biological agents.

 

International Travel

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers' Health
http://www.cdc.gov/travel/

 

One of the more valuable Web sites for those who travel. CDC has made quite a selection of guidelines, outbreak information, vaccination recommendations, and safe food and water suggestions. Those traveling to specific destinations can click on the Destinations link or on the specific region from a drop down box and get specific information about the infectious disease that can be caught while in that locale. Parents traveling with children have not been forgotten. Special needs travelers such as those with disabilities, HIV or who are pregnant or breast-feeding are also provided with suggestions and information. Visitors can also check up on specific diseases that affect travelers and read content from the CDC's Health Information for International Travel 2003-2204

(more commonly known as the"Yellow Book."

 

World Health Organization. International travel and health

 

http://www.who.int/ith/

 

Health advice for travelers. Full description under Books.

 

Data

 

FASTATS: Infectious Disease. National Center for Health Statistics

 

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/infectis.htm

 

High quality source of morbidity data for specified infectious diseases with links to additional sources of data and information.

 

Notifiable Diseases On-Line. Health Canada/Canada Sante

 

http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/ndis/index_e.html

 

Part of Disease Surveillance On-line, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada/Canada Sante intended for dissemination of surveillance data collected on Canadian notifiable diseases. Site includes information on emerging/re-emerging diseases.

 

National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NEDDS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). Epidemiology Program Office. Division of Public Health Surveillance and Informatics

 

http://www.cdc.gov/epo/dphsi/nndsshis.htm

 

Data collected through the NEDDS on selected notifiable infectious diseases are published weekly in the MMWR (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/) and at year-end in the annual Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States (http://www.cdc.gov/epo/dphsi/annsum/index.htm

). Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance are available for reading.

 

Surveillance Resources, National Center for Infectious Diseases

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/osr/index.htm

 

This site "offers information about disease surveillance systems operating within or collaborating with the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). The site also maintains links to disease reports, data, and publications that these systems publish."

 

Books and Reports

 

Brower, Jennifer and Peter Chalk. The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Reconciling U.S. National Security and Public Health Policy, $20.00 (paperback, 163 pp.) ISBN: 0-8330-3293-3, MR-1602-RC, © 2003

 

http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1602/

 

This book covers the topic of reemerging infectious diseases in six chapters that can be purchased or downloaded for free in PDF format. The book "offers a more comprehensive analysis of the security implications of the spread of infectious diseases than has been done to date" and examines the effects that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has had in South Africa. It also examines the threat posed by specific diseases in the United States and and "offers specific actions that can be taken to improve the country's ability to meet this emerging challenge."

 

Forum on Microbial Threats: Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak -- Workshop Summary / Stacey Knobler, Adel Mahmoud, Stanley Lemon, Alison Mack, Laura Sivitz, and Katherine Oberholtzer, Editors, Forum on Microbial Threats. Washington, DC : National Academies Press, 2004. 310 pages (approximate), 6 x 9)

 

http://books.nap.edu/catalog/10915.html

 

As of this date the book is a forthcoming title. In addition to information about SARS, its emergence, detection and response, the political and economic influences on countries affected with the disease, readers will find an excellent chapter on preparing for the next disease outbreak and several appendices including one titled: Appendix A: Agenda: Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Outbreak. With a glossary and extensive but selected bibliography, this is a book worth examining.

 

Global defence against the infectious disease threat: Progress Report 2002 (WHO) [PDF]

 

http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/cds2002/index.html

 

While all chapters from this publication are worth examining, three are of immediate interest: Chapter 1: Global health security; Chapter 3: Defence behind the front lines (covers geographic information systems and mapping, vector control and social mobilization and training); and Chapter 4: Emerging and epidemic-prone diseases.

 

Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Board on Global Health. The Emergence of zoonotic diseases: understanding the impact on animal and human health : workshop summary / Tom Burroughs, Stacey Knobler, and Joshua Lederber, editors. -- Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2002.

 

http://books.nap.edu/books/0309083273/html/index.html

 

This book describes the importance of zoonotic diseases, describes the factors of emergence, their diagnoses and control, surveillance and management of zoonotic disease outbreaks and gives a summary and assessment. A good glossary and acronym list is included.

 

Institute of Medicine. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States, 1992.

 

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309047412/html/

 

A good source of background reading. Provides background information, a catalog of emerging disease agents, global resources for disease surveillance, a glossary, and index. Later followed by Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection and Response.

 

Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Informing the Future: Critical Issues in Health. Second edition, Washington, DC : National Academies Press, 2003. (Acrobat .pdf file; 1.7 MB, 172 p.)

 

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10853.html

 

Current edition of this book is not yet for sale; it is a forthcoming book. Some of the topics included in this version include global health and infectious disease, ensuring food safety and proper nutrition, assuring the public's health and human security and bioterrorism. The previous edition was published in 2001 and is also available from the National Academies Press Web site.

 

International Travel and Health (World Health Organization)

 

http://www.who.int/ith/index.html

 

This online book examines the "risks to which travelers are exposed and the precautions needed to protect their health. [T]he book offers guidance on the full range of health risks likely to be encountered at specific destinations and associated with different types of travel – from business, humanitarian and leisure travel to backpacking and adventure tours." Search by country or disease. View disease maps and a list of keywords. Of special interest to anyone who plans to travel is the "Checklist for the traveler" link that offers suggestions as to what to look for or do given the country that the traveler plans to visit. Fill out and take with you the "predeparture medical questionnaire."

 

Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Mark S. Smolinski, Margaret A. Hamburg, and Joshua Lederberg, Editors, Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC : National Academies Press, 2003. (398 pages, 6 x 9).

 

http://books.nap.edu/catalog/10636.html

 

After describing the spectrum of microbial threats and factors of emergence, this book also addresses the threats in its conclusions and recommendations. Six appendices further examine microbial threats to health and describe syndromic surveillance, pathogen discovery, detection, and surveillance and computational modeling and simulation of epidemic infectious diseases. The index, references and glossary are extensive. Preceded by the book titled, Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.

 

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Microbes in Sickness and in Health (PDF) http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/microbes.htm

 

Available in both html and PDF, this page, designed for the public, gives information on microbes and how they make us sick. Both "old" and "new" microbes are discussed. Information on prevention and when to see a physician is offered. Of special interest is the section on selected diseases that we can get directly or indirectly from animals. A glossary and additional information from other government agencies is also made available to the reader.

 

The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment -- Workshop Summary. Board on Global Health , Institute of Medicine (IOM (http://www.iom.edu)) Stacey L. Knobler ... [et al.], editors -- Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2003.

 

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309088542/html/

 

In seven chapters and seven appendices, this book examines microbe and vector resistance and the economics of resistance, factors contributing to resistance, emerging tools and technology for countering resistance and strategies to contain the development and consequences of resistance. Appendices examine the public health consequences of the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture and provides the reader with additional information resources.

 

 

eJournals and Newsletters

 

Action Against Infection. (WHO)

 

http://www.who.int/health-topics/idindex.htm

 

Current and archived issues are available for reading. Also on the site is a clickable listing of most of the major infectious diseases and their accompanying fact sheets, surveillance and response information, WHO publications and research and development content.

 

BMC Infectious Diseases published by BioMed Central

 

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/

 

"BMC Infectious Diseases publishes original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology." Many of the articles cover aspects of emerging and disease-resistant diseases. Site requires registration.

 

Disease Outbreak News (WHO)

 

http://www.who.int/csr/don/en/

 

Brief news items often in the form of press releases on recent outbreaks. Outbreak information first appears by date and then is archived by disease (http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/disease/en/), year (http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/year/en/) and country (http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/country/en/

).

 

EID Weekly Updates: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas

 

http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/eid-eer-ew.htm

 

EID Weekly Updates started on 10 July 2003.The purpose of these updates is "to disseminate information on the latest outbreaks of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (EID) in the Region of the Americas. The updates will also include information on communicable-disease prevention and control measures; new research developments; new technical materials on EID on the PAHO web; and information on courses, seminars and conferences related to disease prevention and control." Recent issues have highlighted, a "Cholera Outbreak in Zamora Chinchipie Province," "Jungle Yellow Fever (JYF) Outbreak in Colombia," and "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) in Humans and Poultry in Viet Nam."

 

Emerging Infectious Diseases (CDC)

 

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/index.htm

 

Emerging Infectious Diseases is published monthly by the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is a critically important, peer reviewed journal that publishes articles that investigate new, known, and reemerging infections. Additional articles explore the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination. A primary goal is the quick dissemination of reliable information on emerging infectious diseases.

 

Eurosurveillance Weekly and Eurosurveillance Monthly

 

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/index-02.asp

 

Good source of European peer-reviewed information on communicable disease surveillance and control. Topics deal with a variety of infectious disease topics. Recent articles covered HIV in eastern Europe and central Asia, European surveillance of travel associated Legionnaires' disease, HIV infections, avian to human transmission of influenza A (H7N7) during an outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 as well as case reports. Links are provided to a special SARS page of resources and to titles from other current national bulletins.

 

Weekly Epidemiological Record (WHO)

 

http://www.who.int/wer/en/

 

Timely epidemiologic information on cases and outbreaks of infectious diseases that is distributed every Friday in a bilingual English/French edition. The electronic edition is accessible free of charge.

 

Discussion Groups

 

ProMed Mail

 

http://www.promedmail.org/pls/askus/f?p=2400:1000

 

The global electronic reporting system for outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases & toxins, open to all sources.

ProMED-mail, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases, is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Archives are kept for readers to search for previous messages sent to the list. Of special interest is the selection of maps of outbreaks. Currently available are maps that examine West Nile Virus, Anthrax, Influenza, Avian Influenza and animal diseases.

 

World Health Organization. Resources Forum. Email Discussion Groups & Lists

 

http://www.who.int/tdr/kh/bittdre.htm

 

Listing with subscription information and brief description about a variety of email discussion groups related to infectious diseases.

 

Policy

 

Trust for America's Health Reports

 

http://healthyamericans.org/reports/tfah/

 

A set of reports critical of public health's readiness to cope with animal diseases, bird flu epidemics, SARS and related topics.

 

 

Recent Conferences

 

Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance (2002 : June 27-29 : Bethesda MD) Science, Prevention, Control sponsored by the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

 

http://www.nfid.org/conferences/resistance02/

 

Basically provides information about the conference and speaker abstracts in PDF format.

 

Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance (2003 : June 23--25 : Bethesda MD) Science, Prevention, Control sponsored by the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

 

http://www.nfid.org/conferences/resistance03/

 

Basically provides information about the conference and speaker abstracts in PDF format.

 

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (2000 July 16-19 : Atlanta, GA) ICEID 2000 (published as: Emerging infectious diseases 2001 June; 7 (3), Suppl.)

 

http://www.cdc.gov/iceid/2000/index.htm

 

Major topics included current work on surveillance, epidemiology, research, communication and training, bioterrorism, and prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases, both in the United States and abroad.

 

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (2002 March 24-27 : Atlanta, GA) ICEID 2002

 

http://www.cdc.gov/iceid/2002/index.htm

 

Gives the program, exhibitor information and Webcasts that you can use for continuing education credits. Webcasts are listed alphabetically by speaker, by presentation title, by agent or disease and by major topic, as well as by day and type of presentation.

 

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (2004 February 29-March 3 : Atlanta, Georgia) ICEID 2004

 

http://www.cdc.gov/iceid/index.htm

(generic URL for current year only)

 

International Congress on Infectious Diseases,10th : 2002 March 11-14 : Singapore.

 

http://www.isid.org/10th_icid/

 

Sponsored by the International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID), this conference Web site gives information on plenary lectures, symposia, satellite symposia, poster sessions, expert sessions and workshops.

 

International Symposium on Emerging Infectious Diseases & Bioterrorism: Regional Threats, Global Impact, December 5-6, 2002, Davis, CA

 

http://ccm.ucdavis.edu/isibt/

 

World class speakers gave presentations on topics of bioterrorism, hantavirus infections, mad cow diseases, multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria, West Nile Virus infections and others. The presentations are available in PDF on the site (organized by date of presentation).

 

Courses/Training

 

Emerging Infections of International Public Health Importance

 

http://depts.washington.edu/eminf/

 

For those wanting more in-depth information about emerging infections, visit this online course Emerging Infections of International Public Health Importance, a free learning tool offered by APEC EINet. Of interest to both students and teachers as well as other practitioners, this course covers a variety of topics from an overview of surveillance and emerging infections to current challenges in infectious diseases. The public health response is also offered and includes lectures on GIS, bioterrorism, alternatives to vaccines and outbreak verification and response. As with any course a variety of readings and related resources are provided. Last revised in 2002.

 

Webcasts

Preventing the Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Training Network Satellite Broadcast and Webcast, April 4, 2003 (10:00 AM – 11:30 AM ET = Broadcast; 2:00 PM – 3:30 PM ET = Rebroadcast) / sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and supported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/phtn/sars/
This Webcast and course provides information on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) reported in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This global broadcast discusses the latest findings regarding the SARS outbreak and prevention of transmission in healthcare settings. The faculty includes representatives from WHO, CDC, and several affected countries who reported their experiences with SARS.

Author
Laura Larsson, Department of Health Services