The magazine of the UW School of Public Health

Resources on Building on Yesterday. Ready for Tomorrow.

by Laura Larsson, MLS

From the Dean: Taking Stock: Looking Back & Forward

Patricia Wahl

Northwest Center for Public Health Practice. School of Public Health, University of Washington, 2010. [Site visited: February 25, 2010.]
The Northwest Center for Public Health Practice (NWCPHP) "promotes excellence in public health by linking academia and the practice community. As part of the University of Washington School of Public Health, NWCPHP provides training, research, and evaluation for state, local, and tribal public health in six Pacific Northwest states--Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming".

MPH in Community-Oriented Public Health Practice (COPHP). School of Public Health, University of Washington, 2006. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
COPHP prepares students for careers in public health practice by reinforcing skills to address the practical, everyday challenges of work in communities. Graduates will be well prepared to work in such varied settings as community and public health agencies, managed care organizations, federal programs, and advocacy and philanthropic associations". The Program employs two main teaching methodologies, Problem-based learning (PBL) and Service learning.

Department of Global Health. School of Public Health, University of Washington, [n.d.]. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
The Department of Global Health "was formally launched in 2007 and is a joint endeavor of the UW School of Medicine and the School of Public Health. ... Our mission is to close the gap between the world's 1 billion people who experience relatively good health and the 5 billion who experience much lower levels of health through teaching (education, training, and mentoring), research, and service programs. Our goal as a department is to address the causes of, and provide solutions for, disparities in health around the globe."

From the Editor: Public Health: Constant and Changing

Susan Allan
Northwest Public Health. University of Washington, School of Public Health, 2001 - 2010. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
The Northwest Public Health journal "provides a forum for practitioners, teachers, researchers, and policy makers in public health to exchange ideas, describe innovations, and discuss current issues. It is published biannually in spring and fall." Its purpose is to offer "a biannual journal for public health practitioners, academicians, policy makers and others interested in creating the conditions that keep the public healthy. We promote the discussion of public health issues, ideas, and innovations in the Pacific Northwest." Back issues on a variety of topics are linked to. Additional information is also available through Web Specials; these articles only appear online. Submit papers using the Author Guidelines.

Guest Editorial: From the Past to the Future: Public Health Responds & Leads

Bud Nicola

H1N1 influenza
influenza 1918
tylenol capsules that had been filled with cyanide
polio vaccines
arsenic and cadmium from the ASARCO smelter in Tacoma
contamination of drinking water aquifers from hydrocarbons

Karlson, K. A Day in Your Life with Public Health. An Orientation to Klickitat County Health Department. Klickitat County Health Department, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Simple PowerPoint presentation that outlines who public health practitioners are and what they do. It also covers a day in your life and how public health affects you. Topics covered include: safe drinking water, prevention, seatbelt use, safe food, environmental health (pool safety), prevention (Hepatitis B shot by public health nurse), safe food handling. The concluding statement describes the thrust of the presentation, "Public health has touched your life in so many countless ways today, working behind the scene to keep you safe and sound."

Chicago Tylenol murders. Wikipedia, April 27, 2010. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
"The Chicago Tylenol murders occurred when seven people died after taking pain-relief capsules that had been poisoned. The Tylenol poisonings, code-named TYMURS by the FBI, took place in the autumn of 1982 in the Chicago area of the United States. These poisonings involved Extra-Strength Tylenol medicine capsules which had been laced with potassium cyanide. The incident led to reforms in the packaging of over-the-counter substances and to federal anti-tampering laws." The reform in how health products are packaged was one of the leading results of this incident.

The Deadly Virus: The Influenza epidemic of 1918. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
The "influenza epidemic that swept the world in 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people. One fifth of the world's population was attacked by this deadly virus. Within months, it had killed more people than any other illness in recorded history". This site offers many photos and documents related to this deadly disease.

Billings, Molly. The Influenza Pandemic of 1918. Stanford University, June, 1997 modified RDS February, 2005. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Site provides personal and public health information about this disastrous time. Examples include: An excerpt for the memoirs of a survivor at Camp Funston of the pandemic Survivor; a letter to a fellow physician describing conditions during the influenza epidemic at Camp Devens; and a collection of letters of a soldier stationed in Camp Funston Soldier. Of interest to public health practitioners are these sections: graphs of the influenza epidemic impact, the public health response and the scientific and medical responses. A short bibliography is provided for additional study.

Polio Vaccine. Wikipedia. April 25, 2010. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
The two vaccines, one developed by Salk and the other by Albert Sabin, "have eradicated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,652 cases in 2007." This article discusses the development of the inactivated vaccine as well as the oral vaccine. It also discusses fears of Iatrogenic (vaccine-induced) polio and possible contamination of some of the vaccine products. Extensive references.

Dirt Alert - Tacoma Smelter Plume. Washington State Department of Ecology, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
This useful site covers a variety of topics of interest to the general public. It includes information on testing and cleaning your soil and is aimed at homeowners, child care centers and schools, developers and testing labs. Other topics of interest are discussed include the Tacoma Smelter Plume Map, the Soil Safety Program, partners (local health departments that work with the Department of Ecology "to educate the public and keep children safe from arsenic and lead soil pollution"), Studies & Maps and Archives. Use the interactive map, on the Tacoma Smelter Plume to zoom in to your neighborhood or search your address using the "Search" tool. Starting in 1999, studies have been put up on the Web site. These studies looked at the extent of Tacoma Smelter Plume pollution. The studies cover King, Pierce, Thurston, and Kitsap counties, and include maps of pollution levels for both arsenic and lead."

USGS Groundwater Studies Help Explain Contamination in Water Wells. Environmental Protection, Feb 16, 2010. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
New U.S. Geological Survey groundwater studies "explain what, when, and how contaminants may reach public-supply wells." The USGS "tracked the movement of contaminants in groundwater and in public-supply wells in four aquifers in California, Connecticut, Nebraska and Florida." Learn more about public-supply well contamination in a USGS video podcast.

Region at a Glance: Populations and Population Change Around the Region

Tiffany Myers

State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
List of all fifty states with links to their QuickFacts. It includes data for all states and counties, and for cities and towns with more than 25,000 people. This is a valuable resource. Links to states in the Pacific Northwest region are below.

Alaska. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Includes tabular data on Alaska and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Alaska. QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Browse data supporting Alaska’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Idaho. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Includes tabular data on Idaho and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Idaho. QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Browse data supporting Idaho’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Montana. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Includes tabular data on Montana and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Montana. QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. Accessed April 29, 2010.
Browse data supporting Montana’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Oregon. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Includes tabular data on Oregon and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Oregon QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Browse data supporting Oregon’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Washington. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Includes tabular data on Washington State and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Washington QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. Accessed April 29, 2010.
Browse data supporting Washington State’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Wyoming. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau, April 22, 2010. Accessed April 29, 2010.
Includes tabular data on Wyoming and its counties and cities over 25,000 people from the 1990 and 2000 Census. Also includes population projections to 2030 and historical population counts from 1900-1990 for all counties. Of interest is the 2006 income and poverty link and the 2005 health insurance coverage link. Both are model-based estimates.

Wyoming QuickLinks. U.S. Census Bureau, [n.d.]. Accessed April 29, 2010.
Browse data supporting Wyoming’s QuickFacts page in Microsoft Excel (XLS) and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).

Viewpoint: Always Changing, Always the Same: Public Health Workforce

Kristine Gebbie

ASTHO Profile of State Public Health, Volume One. ASTHO. 2009. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
This publication "contains the results of ASTHO’s first comprehensive state public health survey and sets the baseline for a longitudinal state public health data set that will ultimately provide core data for ongoing public health systems research and a data source for tracking state public health quality, performance and best practices". The purpose of this report "is to provide state health officials, public health agency staff, researchers, and other interested parties a comprehensive report of findings from the first of many State Public Health Surveys". (site). Chapter 4 deals specifically with State Health Agency Workforces.


Competencies Home Page. Public Health Foundation. TRAINNational, 2003-2010. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Competencies are link by Core, Bioterrorism (BT), and Medical Reserve Corps Competencies (MRC). Another navigation bar element offers competencies ordered by skill levels (and another without skill levels), by essential public health service and provides definitions. Readers may view and submit examples of competencies used in public health. Additional tools are linked that will help you use the core competencies.

Council on Linkages: Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals. Public Health Foundation. 2008. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Provides the background to this work and to the competencies. The site offers examples of core competencies use, offers reasons why the core public health competencies should be used and offers links to useful tools. The Additional Information section links to Webcasts, presentations and background information.

MPH Core Competency Model. Association of Schools of Public Health, August 21, 2006. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
The competencies are "intended to serve as a resource and guide for those interested in improving the quality and accountability of public health education and training. The final set of MPH core competencies developed by ASPH includes:

  • Five core discipline areas (Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology, Health Policy Management, and Social and Behavioral Sciences)
  • An integrated interdisciplinary, cross-cutting set of overall competency domains (Communication and Informatics, Diversity and Culture, Leadership, Professionalism, Program Planning, Public Health Biology, and Systems Thinking)"

Office of Workforce Policy and Planning (OWPP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Competencies for Public Health Workers: A Collection of Competency Sets of Public Health-Related Occupations and Professions. September 2001. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
This table of competency sets of public health-related occupations and professions was produced by the Office of Workforce Policy and Planning (OWPP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ( for the Competencies and Curriculum Workgroup of the Public Health Workforce Development Progress Workshop (June 18-19, 2001) and revised for the Public Health Workforce Development Annual Meeting (September 12-13, 2001). The competency sets are differentiated into the following categories:

  • Core - Basic Public Health (addresses the essential services of public health)
    • New Topical Areas (emergency response, genomics, law)
  • Functional Areas (leadership, management, supervisory, secretarial)
    • Discipline Specific (professional, technical, entry-level, student)
  • Other Topical Areas (MCH, STD, etc.).

Links to the original source for each the competencies are available in most cases.

Future of Public Health Education

Aday, Lu Ann. Reinventing Public Health: Shaping the Future of Public Health Education. University of Texas School of Public Health. [n.d.]. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Ms Aday provides viewers with the background to public health. In this section is a table with public health revolutions that gives the revolution name, the focus of the revolution and the interventions that resulted. A second section examines key elements in transforming public health; a third section looks at public health practice and the last section on public health education looks at several new areas of study including genomics, global health, ethics, community-based participatory research, cultural competence and informatics to name a few. The last slide describes in tabular format a model of the public health university for the 21st century. (PPT).

Aday, L.A. (Ed). (2005). Reinventing Public Health: Policies and Practices for a Healthy Nation. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass/Wiley. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Aday offers readers a new way of looking at public health. The book covers such topics as population health, sustainable development, human development, economic development and community development. Her final chapter explores the issue of a healthy public. One of the nice features is the introductory section which provides an at-a-glance look at the contents of each chapter.

National Center for Public Health Informatics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August 15, 2009. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
The National Center for Public Health Informatics (NCPHI) is "one of three National Centers within the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service. NCPHI was established in 2005 and is under the leadership of Dr. Stephen B. Thacker. The Center is comprised of the Office of the Director and five divisions with numerous programmatic areas of emphasis. The five divisions are the Division of Alliance Management and Consultation, Division of Emergency Preparedness and Response, Division of Informatics Shared Services, Division of Integrated Surveillance Systems and Services, and the Division of Knowledge Management Services". NCPHI is helping to define public health informatics. Its mission is to "protect the public’s health, promote health equity, and transform public health practice through the advancement of the science of biomedical informatics in public health practice and through collaborative development of information systems for public health".

Viewpoint: Looking Backward, Moving Forward

Maxine Hayes

IOM The Future of Public Health
HIV/AIDs epidemic
WA State DOH history
to E. coli 0157, the Jack in the Box incident
Terrorism and the threat of anthrax
planning for biological threats
pandemic influenza preparedness
public health capacity and recession
health in all policies

Institute of Medicine, The Future of Public Health, National Academy Press, 1988. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
This document revolutionized and reinvigorated public health in the United States and especially in Washington State. This book "contains proposals for ensuring that public health service programs are efficient and effective enough to deal not only with the topics of today, but also with those of tomorrow. In addition, the authors make recommendations for core functions in public health assessment, policy development, and service assurances, and identify the level of government--federal, state, and local--at which these functions would best be handled." The report was updated in 2002 in a document titled, The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century.

The origin of AIDS and HIV and the first cases of AIDS., [n.d.]. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
Comprehensive look at the origins of HIV/AIDS.

Wilma, David. Food contamination by E. coli bacteria kills three children in Western Washington in January and February 1993., April 08, 2004. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
Essay number 5687 discusses the January and February 1993 food contamination by E. coli bacteria that killed three children in Western Washington. "More than 450 persons fall ill after consuming undercooked hamburger or being exposed to infected persons. The source of the contamination will be traced to Jack in the Box Restaurants and to its meat supplier, Von's in California." The document emphasizes the importance of cooking ground meat to the proper temperature.

2001 Anthrax Attacks. Wikipedia, 27 April 2010. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
Wikipedia authors describe the letters and their contents (Anthrax). It describes the subsequent investigation and aftermath and includes comments from government officials. The Timeline covers pre-2001 events as well as the attacks and aftermath.

CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. MMWR, 49(RR04);1-14, April 21, 2000. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
CDC has "developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism --- preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partner-ships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals." This document gives an overview of the potential problems and bases its plan on five focus areas, with each area integrating training and research. These areas are: preparedness and prevention; detection and surveillance; diagnosis and characterization of biological and chemical agents; response; and communication.

HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
The HHS Plan "includes an overview of the threat of pandemic influenza, a description of the relationship of this document to other Federal plans and an outline of key roles and responsibilities during a pandemic. In addition, it specifies needs and opportunities to build robust preparedness for and response to pandemic influenza. The HHS Plan has three parts, the first two of which are contained in this document. Part 1, the HHS Strategic Plan, outlines federal plans and preparation for public health and medical support in the event of a pandemic. It identifies key roles of HHS and its agencies in a pandemic and provides planning assumptions for federal, state and local governments and public health operations plans. Part 2, Public Health Guidance for State and Local Partners, provides detailed guidance to state and local health departments in 11 key areas." Part 3 is still under development.

Stewart, Dianne and Michael Lipsky. Public Capacity and Public Trust. The American Prospect, February 1, 2010. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
This article answers the question, "Can we reverse the vicious circle of frustrated citizens denying state government adequate resources -- and then resenting the lack of state services?"

Public Health Time Line: The Past 40 Years

APHA History and Timeline. American Public Health Association, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This timeline starts with the formation of the Association in 1872 and continues to recent times. Each yearly date is annotated with a single line annotation. A subsection is titled, "Timeline: Memorable Issues of APHA Focus." It is helpful to see how the Association has developed over time and the issues that concern it.

MCH Timeline: History, Legacy and Resources for Education and Practice. U.S. DHHS, Health Resources and Services Administration, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The MCH Timeline "traces the history of maternal and child health in the U.S., provides in-depth modules on topics such as MCH 101, MCH Systems of Care, Infant Mortality and MCH Performance and Accountability, and allows you to search for topical areas of interest." The timeline allows you to see what has happened over time but also allows drilling down into the events to get additional information.

NWCPHP Timeline. Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
View the high points of this innovative program as presented in the NWCPHP Timeline. It not only lists events but also the people who were instrumental in significant events in the Program.

Public Health History Timeline. Southeast Public Health Training Center, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Covers the dates 1500 BC to today. The timeline is annotated and contains helpful images with most records. It’s very nicely done and is fun to look at the changes in public health over time.

Public Health, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming on September 28, 1928 is the first entry on this public health timeline. The items in the timeline are a little sparse in the early years of public health but are excellent and numerous for public health events that took place beginning in 2000 and continuing till today.

Timeline of Significant Events in Public Health. World Health Organization, 2007. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This timeline starts in the 7th Century with China’s plague quarantine. It’s a true timeline with a horizontal chart that provides dates and short descriptions of the public health event. The timeline compresses a lot of time into a single page. It is part of a longer document titled, "The World Health Report 2007: A Safer Future".

Viewpoint: The Evolution of Public Health Through Two Careers

Jill Marsden and Nicola Marsden-Haug

Emergency medical services in public health
King County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) history
Access to healthcare for the uninsured and the low income
communicable disease Southeast Asia
HIV/AIDS education
Bioterrorism preparedness
general public’s interest in pandemic H1N1 influenza and West Nile virus
funding public health

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten Great Public Health Achievements -- United States, 1900-1999. MMWR: April 02, 1999/ 48(12); pp.241-243. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
The ten great public health achievements are: Vaccination; Motor-vehicle safety;
Safer workplaces; Control of infectious diseases; Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke; Safer and healthier foods; Healthier mothers and babies; Family planning; Fluoridation of drinking water; and Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Public Health - Seattle & King County, March 3, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This link offers the public information about Emergency Medical Services in King County, WA. The Publications and Specific Programs section and What’s New offer links to useful information. Look for Annual Reports, strategic planning, and training for EMT/BLS training for local fire departments. Of particular interest to the public is the section on CPR/AED training programs. The King County Medic One is also linked to.

Brammer, T. Lynnette, et al. Surveillance for Influenza --- United States, 1997-98, 1998-99, and 1999-00 Seasons. MMWR Surveillance Series, October 25, 2002 / 51(SS07);1-10. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
In the United States, influenza epidemics "occur nearly every winter and are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, including an average of approximately 114,000 hospitalizations and 20,000 deaths/year. This report summarizes both actively and passively collected U.S. influenza surveillance data from October 1997 through September 2000."

Access to Healthcare for the Uninsured and the Uninsured. National Conference of State Legislators, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Intended for legislators this NCSL page offers information on the following Access to Health Care and the Uninsured topic areas: Increasing Access; Community Health Centers; Health Reform; Medicaid; Insuring Children and Young Adults; Health Disparities; Increasing Employer-Sponsored Insurance; and Other Resources. This is a rich source of information on access concerns.

King County Project Access, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
In 2002, a group of Safety Net providers were convened by King County Health Access Program to discuss potential solutions to the challenge of accessing specialty services for its patients. Discussions focused around developing an effort that leveraged on the local ability of Washington Health Foundation (WHF) to assist uninsured King County residents’ access to state-sponsored health insurance and link these same residents to primary care. Various local health care organizations committed to this project including Public Health - Seattle and King County. Accessed April 28, 2010. One of this project’s goals was to provide "medical services to low-income, uninsured individuals and other individuals experiencing challenges with accessing health care services in the community."

HIV/AIDS Program. Public Health - Seattle and King County, April 21, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This website "contains HIV prevention messages that may not be appropriate for all audiences. Because HIV infection is spread primarily through sexual practices or by sharing needles, prevention messages and programs may address these topics." In addition to new and newsy items, this site offers HIV/AIDS information to the public and to health care providers and health educators. Look for publications and reports in the Publications, fact sheets and guidelines section.

Bioterrorism preparedness. Public Health - Seattle and King County, January 19, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This Web page targets two audiences: the public and King County health care providers. Information on The Public Health response to bioterrorism, what is bioterrorism, what is anthrax along with links to external sites on the topic is targeted at the public. Health care providers will find health advisories and press releases as well as fact sheets on various infectious diseases. Also of interest to health care providers are the Bioterrorism Education Manual and links for health care providers to external Web sites.

Pandemic flu preparedness. Public Health - Seattle and King County, January 19, 2010. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The interested reader will find much of interest at this site. Look for publications, handouts/factsheets, videos and resources targeted at various groups such as schools, government agencies, health care professionals, and individuals and families. One of the more useful sections is the Tabletop Training Exercises section intended for public health practitioners. For more information on pandemic flu be sure to look at the Additional Pandemic Flu Resources link.

Financing Local Public Health in Washington State: Challenges and Choices. PHIP Finance Committee, Berk & Associates, July 2005. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This document "summarizes the financial and policy analysis conducted by the Public Health Improvement Partnership Finance Committee, with the assistance of Berk & Associates, over the last four years. It is intended as a resource to help policy makers understand the financial difficulties facing the public health system in Washington. This document is limited to consideration of local public health financial issues." It looks at public health financing historically as well as in the present. The graphs included in the document reveal a disturbing picture of how funding has declined over time.

Changes in Infant Feeding Practices among Working Mothers between 1992 and 2007

Bidisha Mandal and Seungchul Lee

Key words/concepts
Infant feeding practices
Changes in breastfeeding behavior
Breastfeeding practices
Employed/working mothers

Breastfeeding. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 21, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
CDC's breastfeeding activities "cover a wide range, from conducting and supporting research about breastfeeding to evaluating and sharing information about existing strategies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding." Here you will find recommendations, data and statistics, research, promotion and support, FAQs, resources and publications as well as policy information.

Infant Feeding Practices Study II. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 1, 2009. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
In an effort to learn more about the status of women and infants the Centers for Disease Control conducted a longitudinal consumer-based research study which collected information from mothers.The study provides detailed information about: Foods fed to infants, including breast milk and infant formula; Factors that may contribute to infant feeding practices and to breastfeeding success; Mothers' intrapartum hospital experiences, sources of support, and postpartum depression; Mothers' employment status and child care arrangements; Infant sleeping arrangements; Other issues such as food allergies, experiences with breast pumps, and WIC participation; and Diets of pregnant and postpartum women.  The questionnaires associated with the study are available for downloading as is the raw data. Publications derived from the data are listed on the home page.

Breastfeeding Report Card--United States, 2009. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 21, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
The 2009 Breastfeeding Report Card "shows how breastfeeding is being protected, promoted, and supported in each state using five "outcome" and nine "process" indicators." Breastfeeding data is available by state. Look for outcome and process indicators in the report card. Outcome indicators include percent ever breastfed, percent breast-feeding at 6 months and more. Process indicators include Percent of live births occuring at facilities designated as Baby Friendly (BFHI), Number of state health department FTEs** dedicated to breastfeeding, and others.

Public Health Laboratories: From Microscopes to Microarrays

Michael Skeels

Key words
Molecular tests for infectious diseases
Molecular tests
Restriction fragment mapping ("DNA fingerprinting")
Direct detection of DNA or RNA sequences of a specific bacterium or virus in clinical samples
Newborn screening public health labs
Environmental Chemistry and Biomonitoring

Molecular Approaches to Diagnosing and Managing Infectious Diseases: Practicality and Costs. Pfaller, Michael A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7 (2): Mar-Apr 2001. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This is a nice overview article that describes the tools of molecular biology and offers information on practical aspects of employing these tools to diagnose, offer therapy, and and enhance epidemiologic investigations and infection control. Also provides insight on the financial aspects of using these tools.

Public Health Laboratories Build Healthy Communities. Skeels MR. 1995. Laboratory Medicine 26(9):588-592.
Health Information Resources. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Public health laboratories (PHLs) are vitally important to community health, providing a broad range of disease control, preventive health care, environmental monitoring, applied research, and laboratory improvement services. Local, state, and federal PHLs work together as a network to protect the public's health. The last decade has brought challenges to PHLs, including accelerating technology, shrinking funding, managed care, privatization, and a public health shift toward chronic disease prevention. The survival of PHLs will require adaptability and responsiveness to these trends, as well as increased emphasis on information systems, genetic screening, national health objectives, emerging infectious diseases, expanded environmental testing, and public and private partnerships. (Abstract).

Laboratories and Disease Surveillance. Skeels MR. Military Medicine. 2000 Jul;165(7 Suppl 2):16-9. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The U.S. communicable disease surveillance system "depends on high-quality testing and reporting by clinical and public health laboratories (PHLs). Clinical laboratories offer a wide range of microbiological services, provide a large portion of all disease reports, and refer isolates and samples to PHLs for confirmation and typing. The PHLs support disease surveillance by providing special reference testing, serological or molecular typing to identify disease clusters and sources, primary laboratory services for high-risk clients, quality assurance and training for clinical laboratories, and testing for unique agents unavailable elsewhere. However, profound changes in the health care industry are threatening the ability of public- and private-sector laboratories to carry out disease surveillance activities." (Abstract).

Toward a National Laboratory System for Public Health. Skeels MR. Panel Summary from the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7, (3 Supplement) Jun 2001 (reviewed March 11, 2009). [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Describes how a National Laboratory System would offer these essential services: case finding in high-risk groups, outbreak detection, emergency response, environmental monitoring, and disease surveillance.

Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, A Report of the Association of Public Health Laboratories. Witt-Kushner, J et al. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, September 20, 2002 / 51(RR14);1-8. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
"Emerging natural and man-made threats to the health of the nation's population require development of a seamless laboratory network to address preventable health risks; this can be achieved only by defining the role of public health laboratories in public and private laboratory service delivery. Establishing defined core functions and capabilities for state public health laboratories will provide a basis for assessing and improving quality laboratory activities. Defining public health laboratory functions in support of public health programs is the beginning of the process of developing performance standards for laboratories, against which state public health laboratories, and eventually local public health and clinical laboratories, will establish and implement best laboratory practices. Public health is changing, and as a part of that change, public health laboratories must advocate for and implement improvements for public health testing and surveillance. These changes are outlined also in the Association of Public Health Laboratories consensus report (Association of Public Health Laboratories. Core functions and capabilities of state public health laboratories: a white paper for use in understanding the role and value of public health laboratories in protecting our nation's health. Washington, DC: Association of Public Health Laboratories, 2000).

Clinical Applications of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases. Speers, David J. Clinical and Biochemical Review. 2006 February; 27(1): 39-51. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
In addition to examining how molecular biology has affected virology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology, and broad-range PCR,  the article reviews public health uses especially for quickly diagnosing, managing and tracking unusual outbreaks of infectious diseases. The author also examines biosecurity issues. The last two sections look at the limitations of molecular methods and future directions of molecular technology.

Public Health Laboratories. Wiley D. Jenkins. Jones & Bartlett, 2011. ISBN-13: 9780763771027. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
This Web page is an ad for a new book. Public Health Laboratories "explores the objectives and inner workings of the public health laboratory. Topics include: history of public health labs; different testing sections, methods, missions, and technologies; personnel issues including education and certifications; different laboratory designs/levels/certifications; biological/chemical terrorism response strategies; coordination with law enforcement/outside agencies; uses of lab data; CLIA/HIPAA/other confidentiality and legal issues; personnel management basics; LIMS and other topics." Intended for students.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Section 1: Public Health Preparedness in the States and DC. Public Health Laboratories., [n.d.]. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Describes the importance of public health labs in laboratory testing for biological and chemical threats, communication, and training. It also covers challenges that might be faced by public health labs such as broadening the range of laboratory testing and boosting the laboratory scientist workforce to ensure rapid and accurate testing.

Microarrays for public health: genomic epidemiology of tuberculosis. Shafi, Jamila, Peter W. Andrew and Michael R. Barer. Comparative and Functional Genomics, 2002; 3: 362-365. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This full text article describes the results of evaluating the utility of microarray bacterial genomic analysis in outbreak management.

Final Report: Microbial Community Microarrays to Assess Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Water Quality. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Research, November 30, 2007. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This research "focused on demonstrating that a suite of environmental microorganisms can serve as bioindicators for the presence of chemical pollutants, using mercury as a proof of principle."

Biomonitoring and EPHT, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Environmental Public Health Tracking, July 13, 2009. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Biomonitoring is "the direct measurement of people's exposure to environmental contaminants by measuring substances or their metabolites in blood, urine, or other specimens." "Biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing people's exposure to toxic substances and for responding to serious environmental public health problems. Biomonitoring is an essential component of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Environmental Public Health Tracking includes data on environmental hazards, human exposure, and health effects. The most health-relevant method of determining human exposure to environmental hazards is biomonitoring." Use this site to find updated information on Biomonitoring and "information about linking biomonitoring and environmental public health tracking with particular focus on hazards, exposures, and health effects."

Newborn Screening and Genetics. Association of Public Health Laboratories, 2008. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Each year, "thousands of severe disorders are detected in children born in the United States as a result of newborn screening by public health laboratories." Sections on infant screening, research into newborn screening and molecular testing provide a good overview to this topic.

Use of DNA Fingerprinting To Assess Tuberculosis Infection Control. French, Audrey L., et al. Annals of Internal Medicine, December 1, 1998 vol. 129 no. 11 Part 1 856-861. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The purpose of this paper was "to use DNA fingerprinting to assess the efficacy of current tuberculosis infection-control practices." The paper is available in full text.

An Act of Bioterrorism: Oregon, 1984

Michael Skeels and Katherine J. Hall

1984 Rajneeshee Bioterror Attack. Wikipedia, 26 April 2010.
. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of more than 750 individuals in The Dalles, Oregon, United States through the deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with salmonella. A leading group of followers of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (now known as Osho) had hoped to incapacitate the voting population of the city so that their own candidates would win the 1984 Wasco County elections. The incident was the first bioterrorism attack in the United States, and the single largest bioterrorist attack in United States history.

Historical Trends Related to Bioterrorism: An Empirical Analysis. Tucker, Jonathan B. Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue, Vol. 5, No. 4, July.August 1999. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project at the Monterey Institute's Center for Nonproliferation Studies has "compiled an open-source database of all publicly known cases from 1900 to the present in which domestic or international criminals or terrorists sought to acquire or use chemical, biological, radiologic, or nuclear materials. As of January 31, 1999, the database contained 415 incidents, both domestic and international. Each entry draws on multiple sources and includes a detailed description of the event and a list of citations." This paper gives a good summary of bioterrorism events looking at such values as motivation/objective, ideology, targets, agents, delivery and outcome.

Environmental Justice in Indian Country

Nicholas C. Zaferatos

Native Americans and the Environment: Environmentalists and Social Justice. National Council for Science and the Environment, 2002. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Lists numerous resources, many annotated, on the topic of Native Americans and social justice.

Environmental Justice Resources on the World Wide Web. Working Group on Environmental Justice, Harvard University, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Lists many sites under the following topics: Key Environmental Justice Web Sites, U.S. Government Environmental Justice Sites and Sources, Electronic Newsletters and Journals, Environmental Justice Documents and Studies, Selected Additional Environmental Resources on the World Wide Web and to Geographic Information (GIS) Resources.

Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice (Paperback). Weaver, Jace. Orbis Books, 1997. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
This anthology of 11 essays "is the result of an unusual conference of Native North American environmental activists held at the Iliff School of Theology in Denver in March 1995. It stands in stark contrast to other such collections, because it includes among its writers none of the more well-known non-Native American environmentalists. As such, it provides an enormously fascinating examination of the present environmental crisis from both academic and administrative perspectives from within the Native American community. Introduced by Russell Means, co-founder of the American Indian Movement, and edited by attorney Jace Weaver, this collection includes contributions from Margaret Sam-Cromarty, who fought the disastrous James Bay project in Canada; Phyllis Young, who fought the ESTI Coal Slurry Pipeline; and, Justine Smith, who opposes Exxon's massive Mole Lake project in Wisconsin. These authors write not only with passion but also with scholarly acumen and logic. This is an important and eloquent work that few books on ecology can match". (Publisher’s Weekly).

Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Bryant B (ed.). Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
According to the editorial review this book provides a startling look at pressing social and environmental problems and charts a course for future action. Among the topics considered are:  the history of the social justice movement; the role of the professional in working with community groups; methods of dealing with environmental problems at the international level; and participatory national policy for environmental education, energy, industrial development, and housing and sustainable development."

The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States. Faber D (ed.). New York: The Guilford Press, 1998. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
"This collection of twelve articles provides a provocative profile of the environmental justice movement throughout the United States. These prominent contributors have produced a compelling narrative of how environmental injustice affects people of color and low-income groups".

Environmental justice and American Indian tribal sovereignty: case study of a land use conflict in Skull Valley, Utah. Ishiyama N. Antipode 2003; 1: 119-139. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Full-text article is not available online.

Rescuing Paha Sapa: achieving environmental justice by restoring the great grasslands and returning the Sacred Black Hills to the Great Sioux Nation. LaVelle JP. Great Plains Natural Resources Journal 2001; 5:40. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
This journal is now titled, "Sustainable Development Law Journal".

Environmental Justice: A Reference Handbook. Newton DE. Denver: ABC-CLIO, 1996. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Environmental Justice "carefully examines both sides of the issue as it applies to specific examples of such environmental hazards as lead paint in houses, toxic waste sites, nuclear power plants, and air and water pollution. The scope of the book is global, and readers will come away with a solid understanding of environmental justice". (Amazon Product Description)

A Closer Look at Environmental Justice in Indian Country. Walker JL. Seattle Journal for Social Justice 2002; 1:379. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Full-text article is not available online.

Environmental Justice in Indian Country: Dumpsite Remediation on the Swinomish Indian Reservation. Zaferatos NC. Environmental Management. 2006; 38(6):896-909. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Article available as a PDF for a fee at or contact the author.

Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-income Populations. Executive Order 12898 OF February 11, 1994. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Site no longer updated but contains useful information on implementation of the order, Federal Agency responsibilities, research, data collection, and analysis and related topics.

Environmental & Occupational Health: From Local to Global

Rebecca Morris-Chatta and Sharon L. Morris

Key words/concepts
Clean Air Act
Mine safety
Consumer product safety

The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act. US EPA Office of Air Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, Pub. No. EPA- 456/K-07-001, 2007. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This document’s target audience is the public. It covers why people should be concerned about clean air, key elements in the Clean Air Act, how the Act is working and offers ways to reduce air pollution.

Dynamics and Transport of Sulfur Dioxide in the North Pacific Troposphere. Tu, Fang Huang. Drexel University, 2004. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This thesis by Fang Tu examines sulphur dioxide levels in the Northern Hemisphere. The objectives of TRACE-P - an aircraft mission - "were to identify the major pathways for Asian outflow over the western Pacific and to better understand the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific."

Observations of Solid Waste Landfills in Developing Countries: Africa, Asia and Latin America. Lars Mikkel Johannessen and Gabriella Boyer. Urban Development Division, Waste Management Anchor Team, World Bank 1999. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The report "documents observations from visits in 1997-98 to landfills in the Africa, East Asia and Pacific, and Latin America and Caribbean regions. Specifically, it identifies emerging features, practices, and necessary improvements in the final disposal of solid waste. Also discussed are trends in the regulatory area, private sector involvement, tipping fees, and the impact of waste pickers on sanitary landfills. Finally, the report identifies crossregional observations, and offers recommendations for improvements in World Bank projects that have solid waste components." (Report).

What a Waste, Solid Waste Management in Asia. Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, World Bank, 1999 [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
This report describes the problem of solid waste in Asia including how much waste is generated and its composition and trends. It outlines the problem of a growing consumer society in developing countries and looks at business interests with respect to the waste stream. The chapter on environmental and health impacts of improper solid waste management including pollution of air, soil and water. The report examines a variety of typical solid Waste management practices and looks at how much of various developing countries GNP are spent on urban waste services. The last chapter looks at common values or strategies for waste disposal systems which occur across Asia. The list of references accompanying the report is extensive. One Annex looks at solid waste data and the other at waste generation rates.

Balancing Act: Creating the Right Regulation for Coal Combustion Waste. Manuel J.  2009. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:A498-A503. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
The Federal Government and states are beginning to look at regulations regarding coal combustion waste (CCW). This re-examination came about as a result of the December 22, 2008 collapse of a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) ash pond in Kingston, Tennessee, and with President Obama’s Cabinet’s concern with the environment. This article describes the current disposition of CCWs and questions the safety of CCW storage. It examines regulatory options and explores the issue of whether or not CCWs are hazardous. It also looks at the impact of CCW regulation and in particular the impact of mercury regulation. Full text is available at this URL.

Chronicle of a Health Crisis: Global Implications of the 2008 Melamine Event. Tillett T. 2009. Environ Health Perspect 117:A553-A552. [Accessed April 28, 2010.]
Download the complete article from this site. Melamine "is commonly used to manufacture strong and durable laminates, plastics, adhesives, and flame-resistant textiles. It also has been deliberately added to food and animal feed, sometimes in high amounts, to boost the appearance of protein content based on nitrogen analysis. The result can be serious health threats, including renal failure and death." "[T]he authors state "that well-structured national food safety systems--combined with coordination among food safety authorities and rapid communication through INFOSAN--are key components in controlling such outbreaks."

Northwest Public Health at 30: Connecting Academia & Practice

Katherine J. Hall

Key words/concepts
Health information technologies (HIT)
Electronic health records
Immunization histories and registries
Real-time health alerts

Northwest Public Health. University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 2001 - 2010. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
The Northwest Public Health journal "provides a forum for practitioners, teachers, researchers, and policy makers in public health to exchange ideas, describe innovations, and discuss current issues. It is published biannually in spring and fall." Its purpose is to offer "a biannual journal for public health practitioners, academicians, policy makers and others interested in creating the conditions that keep the public healthy. We promote the discussion of public health issues, ideas, and innovations in the Pacific Northwest." Back issues on a variety of topics are linked to. Additional information is also available through Web Specials; these articles only appear online. Submit papers using the Author Guidelines.

Changes in Health Information Management Technologies: The Impact on Public Health

P. Elison-Bowers, Uwe Reischl, Jaime Sand, and Linda Osgood

How technology has transformed public health in the past 20 years. Focus on informatics, and also on Google Maps.

A success story in American health care: using health information technology to improve patient care in a community health center in Washington. Herzer, K and Seshamani, M., [n.d.]. [Accessed April 27, 2010.]
Describes the The Columbia Basin Health Association’s project to better deliver health care in rural areas. CBHA "decided to make diabetic care a priority and began tracking 1,302 diabetic patients, using their EHR system to monitor whether the patients received recommended exams. CBHA then provided feedback to health care providers on their performance." This is an excellent description of how HIT can be used to improve rural health.

Health information technology. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [Accessed October 12, 2012.]
The site describes health information technology and its role in improving patient care. Look for funding opportunities, programs, regulations and guidance, ONC initiatives, outreach and a blog.

The Computer-Based Patient Record: An Essential Technology for Health Care, Revised Edition. Richard S. Dick, Elaine B. Steen, and Don E. Detmer, Editors; Committee on Improving the Patient Record, Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. (1997) [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
In its first edition, this book "presented a blueprint for introducing the computer-based patient record (CPR). The revised edition adds new information to the original book. One section describes recent CPR developments and an international chapter highlights what is new in this still-emerging technology. The committee explores the potential of machine-readable CPRs to improve diagnostic and care decisions, provide a database for policymaking, and much more."  (Abstract).

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Wikipedia, April 28, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
Extensive description of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act covering such topics as legislative history, provisions of the Act, Congressional Budget Office reports, recommendations by economists, and extensive references as well as external links.

Track the Money. April 29, 2010. [Accessed April 29, 2010.]
This site lets the viewer see where the money funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has gone and how much has been spent. Information organized by state. The site also links to opportunities, news, a FAQ and resources. Track the money through video clips. Download data and create your own reports through the Download Center.

50 years ago in Alaska

Ward B. Hurlburt


Tuberculosis in Alaska, 1988-90. Epidemiology, Bulletin No. 11, June 3, 1991. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Describes the annual incidence rates of TB in Alaska during 1988-1990 as being the lowest ever recorded in Alaskan history.

Public Health Performance, State of Alaska, December 31 2009. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a long standing problem in Alaska and was the cause of death for 46% of all Alaskans who died in 1946. For 2007, Alaska had the third-highest TB rate in the country. In 2008 Alaska’s annual TB rate (per 100,000 population) was 7.4, nearly twice the national rate. Alaska's goal is to reduce the tuberculosis (TB) rate to less than 6.8/100,000 population.

Swagel, Will. Sitka event recounts history of TB in Alaska. Capital City Weekly, March 24, 2010. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Newspaper article describes a talk given by Dr. Linda Green, an anthropologist and professor at the University of Arizona. Her talk was one of several events put on by the Sitka chapter of RESULTS to commemorate World TB Day on March 24, 2010. The history of TB in Alaska is covered in a paragraph but definitely adds to the article written by Will Swagel.

Tuberculosis (TB). American Indian/Alaska Natives, Minority Women’s Health,, March 2008. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Site describes the symptoms for TB, tells viewers what to do if he or she thinks they have TB, and offers publications and organizations with an interest in TB.

Schneider E. Tuberculosis Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1993-2002. American Journal of Public Health. 2005 May; 95(5): 873-880. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
TB "continues to be a major health problem for the AIAN population. TB elimination among American Indians/Alaska Natives will require continuous and effective communication between TB control programs and local, state, federal, and tribal governments and organizations. Collaboration between health care and public health partners, carried out with respect for traditional tribal culture, will promote TB case detection and management, help providers identify and treat contacts with latent TB infection and identify people for targeted testing, improve the capacity to respond to outbreaks, and optimize TB surveillance while decreasing the burden and cost of TB control. Continued vigilance and collaboration are essential to controlling TB among the AIAN population." (From full text of the article).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis outbreak on Standing Rock Sioux Reservation--North Dakota and South Dakota, 1987-1990. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991;40(12):204-207. [PubMed]. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Describes a cluster of cases of tuberculosis (TB) that occurred among persons residing on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation between 1987 and 1990.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis outbreak on an American Indian reservation--Montana, 2000-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51(11):232-234. [PubMed] erratum. [Accessed February 25, 2010.]
Describes five tuberculosis (TB) cases, linked by contact and DNA fingerprinting that were reported from the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in rural Montana between 2000 and 2001.

Kelwaq: A Person Who Alerts the Community to Strange or Unusual Dangers and Things that Might Happen

Michael Bradley and Tara Melinkovich

Siberian Yupik. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. November 17, 2009. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
This entry in Wikipedia covers the Yupik’s material and spiritual cultures and offers references, further reading and external links. Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits, "are indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska. They speak Central Siberian Yupik (also known as Yuit), a Yupik language of the Eskimo-Aleut family of languages".

Resources in and About the Central Siberian Yupik Language. Language Archives, [n.d.]. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
Bibliography containing language descriptions and other resources about the language.

Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC). [n.d.]. [Accessed April 13, 2010.]
The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) "provides statewide services in: specialty medical care; construction of water and sanitation and health facilities; community health and research; information technology; and professional recruiting". Recent links of interest to readers include: Traditional Food Guide for Alaska Native Cancer Survivors (available to order), Healthy Alaska Natives Foundation, and to the quarterly Mukluk Telegraph newsletter.